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Bruce L. Dunn and Jon T. Lindstrom

into account that only those plants with clear phenotypic tetraploid traits were screened cytometrically. Leaf size and stem thickness were the best phenotypic indicators of polyploidy in early stages. Plants could be visually screened as early as 4

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Juan Chen, Nianhe Xia, Xiaoming Wang, Richard C. Beeson Jr., and Jianjun Chen

. Polyploidy occurs in the genus Lonicera ( Ammal and Saunders, 1952 ; Solov’eva and Plekhanova, 2003 ). Ploidy levels and genome sizes play important roles in plant evolution ( Soltis et al., 2003 ). The 2C nuclear DNA amount of Lonicera varies 6-fold

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Joseph J. Rothleutner, Mara W. Friddle, and Ryan N. Contreras

appears to be associated with polyploidy, as the tetraploids and triploids are frequently obligate or rarely facultative apomicts, while diploid progeny are sexually derived ( Bartish et al., 2001 ; Czapik, 1996 ; Hjelmqvist, 1962 ; Nybom and Bartish

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Elisabeth M. Meyer, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

shown 2,4-D to be ineffective for in vitro shoot regeneration ( Touchell et al., 2008 ). Efficient in vitro regeneration systems provide a tool to manipulate ploidy and improve ornamental features. Polyploidy in some plants may result in desirable

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Rhiannon L. Wilson and William A. Hoch

taxa. Polyploidy, in particular triploidy, is a common cause of sterility in ornamental selections ( Datta, 1960 ; Godo et al., 2004 ; Kondo et al., 1993 ; Saito et al., 2003 ; Tanaka et al., 2005 ; Wybe and Peterse, 1999 ). These sterile plants

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Lisa Alexander

associated with Hydrangea production. Polyploidy—also known as whole genome duplication—has long been associated with changes to ornamental traits in plants. Increasing the number of chromosome sets in plant cells often leads to thicker stems and leaves, a

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

et al., 2005 ). Studies on genome evolution focus on large, structural changes in sequence or fluctuations in genome size resulting from natural phenomena including polyploidy, chromosome fission/fusion, and interploid hybridization ( Soltis and

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Peter J. Zale and Pablo Jourdan

. Polyploidy has played an important role in the development of ornamental plant cultivars ( Contreras et al., 2009 ; Parris et al., 2010 ; Ranney, 2006 ), but the extent to which it has been used in Phlox is uncertain. We could find no published reports

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Yuan Zhang, Chen Wang, HongZheng Ma, and SiLan Dai

et al., 2012 ; Gu et al., 2011 ). However, studies on the molecular genetics of chrysanthemums have rarely been reported because of the aneuploid polyploidy of the chrysanthemum genome, which indicates the non-exponential loss or gain of chromosomes

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Josue Ortega-Ortega, Francisco Arturo Ramírez-Ortega, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano, and Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares

intended to expand the genomic understanding of C. arabica and correlate nuclear DNA content as well as base composition with evolutionary relationships such as diversification, hybridization, and polyploidy. Materials and Methods Plant material Leaves