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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

growth and flowering. More recent studies indicate that seaweed extracts can stimulate increases in endogenous phytohormones such as cytokinins, auxin, indole acetic acid, and gibberellic acid, which can improve growth and development, as well as protect

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Lili Dong, Qi Wang, Feng Xiong, Na Liu, and ShuiMing Zhang

novel phytohormone that can inhibit shoot branching ( Al-Babili and Bouwmeester, 2015 ; Gomez-Roldan et al., 2008 ; Umehara et al., 2008 ). Strigolactones are derived from the carotenoids ( Lopez-Raez et al., 2008 ; Matusova et al., 2005 ), which were

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Michael W. Smith, Charles T. Rohla, and Niels O. Maness

has been supported by several studies ( Malstrom, 1974 ; Sparks and Brack, 1972 ; Wood, 1989 , 1991 ; Worley, 1979a , b ). Barnett and Mielke (1981) suggested that phytohormones may be involved in regulation of pecan alternate bearing. The

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Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak, and Mi Seon Kim

) ( Kubatsch et al., 2007 ), and coleus ( Solenostemon scutellarioides ) ( Garland et al., 2010 ). A recent review article reported that shade induced stem elongation through phytohormone signaling, thus producing tall but thin plants as a shade avoidance

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Weijie Jiang, Jie Bai, Xueyong Yang, Hongjun Yu, and Yanpeng Liu

resulted in the cloning and characterization of many components of the cold signaling pathway, in which the phytohormone ABA plays an important role ( Xin and Browse, 2000 ). Moreover, Put and another class of phytohormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs

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Shadia Nada, Siva Chennareddy, Stephen Goldman, Sairam Rudrabhatla, Shobha Devi Potlakayala, Puthyaparambil Josekutty, and Karelia Deepkamal

steps: the acquisition of competence; shoot induction; and organogenesis determination ( Christianson and Warnick, 1988 ). The plant cells first acquire competence and then, after induction by a phytohormone signal, form a population of developmentally

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Tripti Vashisth and Anish Malladi

herbivore attack (Taylor and Whitelaw, 2001). Multiple phytohormones such as auxins, ethylene, jasmonates, and abscisic acid regulate the signaling mechanisms leading to the activation and progression of abscission ( Hartmond et al., 2000 ; Kim et al., 2013

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Wei Hu, Ju-Hua Liu, Xiao-Ying Yang, Jian-Bin Zhang, Cai-Hong Jia, Mei-Ying Li, Bi-Yu Xu, and Zhi-Qiang Jin

et al., 1990 ), hypoxia ( Tsushida and Murai, 1987 ), cytosolic acidification ( Crawford et al., 1994 ), water stress ( Bolarin et al., 1995 ), and phytohormones ( Ford et al., 1996 ). Activated GADs lead to GABA accumulation that is important in

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Keng Heng Chang, Rung Yi Wu, Geng Peng Chang, Ting Fang Hsieh, and Ren Shih Chung

plant morphology were related to changes in the phytohormone balance. Therefore, the NS158-treated plants produced a wider and more circular spathe could be attributed to the N-related phytohormone balance. The nitrogen requirement and nutrient uptake of

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Fengge Hao, Lirong Wang, Ke Cao, Xinwei Wang, Weichao Fang, Gengrui Zhu, and Changwen Chen

, plants can initiate SAR in tissues distant from the initial infection, which confers stable and broad-spectrum systemic resistance against subsequent attackers ( Cameron et al., 1994 ; Durrant and Dong, 2004 ). The phytohormone SA is known to participate