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Chad E. Finn and John R. Clark

cuttings; chilling requirement 500–700 h. New Hanover. Large-fruited early mid-season southern highbush cultivar suited for hand harvest for fresh market. Origin: North Carolina State University, by J. Ballington and S. Rooks. NC 1522 × O

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Margaret R. Pooler

The U.S. National Arboretum has released over 650 new plant cultivars since it was established in 1927. A key to the success of the plant breeding program has been the voluntary participation of universities and private nurseries in evaluating and propagating new plant material. The cooperative evaluation and stock increase programs play a critical role in the successful testing, introduction, and distribution of new cultivars of landscape trees and shrubs. These integrated cooperative programs depend on the involvement of nurserymen, researchers, botanic gardens, or individuals to evaluate potential new cultivars under diverse climatic conditions and hardiness zones, and wholesale propagation nurseries to increase stock of those cultivars destined for release.

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Xuan Huang and Liangjun Zhao*

As well as investigating physiological characteristics of the new yellow cultivar of Celtis julianae—`Golden Phoenix' (Julian hackberry, which originally distributed in south of China, is important environmental plant, because there are numerous hairs on surfaces of the leaf, which can absorb dust and clean the air. Julian hackberry is deciduous big tree, more than 25 meters in high, with deep green leaf, red flower and orange fruit, blossoming in April.), differences in leaf color between the new cultivar and the normal Celtis julianae were evaluated. The new cultivar is a natural seed mutant from some cultivated seedlings of Celtis julianae found in 2001. It has golden yellow leaf, average color is Yellow-Green150A mensurating by English Color Card, is significantly more different than those of the normal. It can normally growing but slowly, with smaller plant-size and shorter internode than common plant. The new cultivar's leaf contains less chlorophyll than the normal, but same carotenoid. Its net photosynthetic rate is lower than that of Julian hackberry common cultivates in full sunlight. Shading of leaf to 50% sunlight decreases chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate compared with full sunlight and sharper in photosynthetic, resulting in deepen green color. Leaves of the new cultivar show higher values of lightness and yellow-green as compared with other normal. Shoot multiplication frequency was highest on woody plant medium containing 1.5 mg 6-BA(benzyladenine)/ml, producing 6 shoots from a single explant, but these are some troubles to root.

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Juan L. Silva, Estuardo Marroquin, Frank B. Matta, and Esteban A. Herrera

This work is the result of 3 years of collaborative research between Mississippi State Univ. and New Mexico State Univ. Physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics were studied to assess eating quality of popular New Mexico pecan (Carya illinoinensis) cultivars. The force and energy necessary to break (shear) pecan nuts, and Hunter `a' and hue angle values varied with harvest year and cultivar. All other traits, including sensory evaluation results, varied only with cultivar. `Ideal' was of light color, small size, and not as firm as the others, while `Burkett' was soft and slightly rancid. `Wichita' was the cultivar rated best by panelists, despite its slightly darker color. `Western Schley' and `Salopek' were also acceptable, although not as acceptable as `Wichita'.

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Curt R. Rom, R. Andy Allen, Donn T. Johnson, and Ronald McNew

The NE-183 project was established in 1993 and the first trial planted in 1995 with the objective of evaluating new apple cultivars for horticultural, pest and disease resistance, and qualitative characteristics. Arkansas (AR) is the southernmost location for the initial planting. The following cultivars are in AR trial: `Arlet', `Braeburn', `Cameo', `Creston', `Enterprise', `Fortune', `Fuji', `Gala Supreme', `Ginger Gold', `GoldCrisp', `Golden Delicious', `Golden Supreme', `Goldrush', `Honeycrisp', `NY75414-1', `Orin', `Pristine', `Sansa', `Shizuka', `Suncrisp', `Sunrise', and `Yataka'. Bloom of `Braeburn', `Yataka', `Orin', `Gold Supreme', `Fortune', and `Enterprise' were early and may be exposed to annual spring frosts. The following cultivars ripened in July or August and may be too early for southern markets: `Pristine', `Sunrise', `Sansa', `Ginger Gold', `Arlet', `Honeycrisp', `Golden Supreme', and `Orin'. The following cultivars were very precocious and had yields >7.5 kg/tree in the third growing season: `Fuji', `Enterprise', `Creston', `Golden Delicious', `Ginger Gold', `Suncrisp', and `Goldrush'.

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Mark S. Strefeler and Robert-Jan W. Quené

Six commercial cultivars (Anna, Aurore, Danhill, Danlight, Melanie, and Thelca), one drought tolerant cultivar (Orangeade), nine breeding selections, and one check genotype of Impatiens hawkeri Bull were evaluated for differences in drought tolerance based on water loss and time to wilt. The six commercially available cultivars had significantly higher mean water loss than the breeding selections and `Orangeade'. These cultivars wilted in 5.11 vs. 7.33 days for `Orangeade' and 9.10 days for the breeding selections. These results suggest that sufficient variability exists in New Guinea impatiens germplasm for the reduction of water loss to improve drought tolerance. Regression analysis revealed that total transpirational water loss 96 hours after withholding water was an excellent predictor of the time to wilting (a simple measure of drought tolerance) after water was withheld (R2 = 0.95). Thus, a simple, efficient and objective method for selection of drought tolerant genotypes has been developed for New Guinea impatiens. A comparison of offspring to parental genotypes showed that after only one cycle of selection, water loss was significantly reduced by >30%. These results suggest that there is sufficient genetic variability present for the development of more drought tolerant cultivars.

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Kyung Ku Shim, Y.M. Ha, J.B. Lee, K.O. Byun, Y. Youn, E.R. Noh, and H.R. Park

New cultivars, `SKK 1' and `SKK 2', of Korean mountain ash (Sorbus alnifolia) that had superior morphological features as woody landscape plants were selected from 5000 seedlings of Sorbus alnifolia. Two clones with genetic variation were selected from 1983 to 1994 as landscape plants with large leaf and unique tree form: `SKK 1', which had large leaf and flower, and `SKK 2', with semi-weeping tree form. New selected cultivars of S. alnifolia were successfully grafted and inherited their mother characteristics. Sorbus alnifolia was difficult to propagate by cutting. Therefore, in vitro propagation methods might be used to propagate the superior cultivars. Shoots with apical and axillary buds were excised from 1-year-old seedlings. The explants were cultured on WPM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA. Shoots formed from initial cultures were subcultured at ≈4-week intervals onto the same media. To know the best hormone concentration in shoot multiplication, 0.1–3.0 mg/L of BA and 0.1–1.0 mg/L of zeatin were added to each WPM and MS media. The best shoot proliferation and elongation were obtained on MS medium with 1.0 mg/L BA from the whole shoot with the callus-like tissue, whereas the worst results were obtained from shoot tip. A 13-fold proliferation rate was achieved every 4 weeks.

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Darab Hassani, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, Asghar Soleimani, Raana Dastjerdi, Reza Rezaee, Mansureh Keshavarzi, Kourosh Vahdati, Ahmad Fahadan, and Jamal Atefi

characterized by high yield, lateral fruitfulness, and early harvest. Origin In Iran, the walnut breeding program started in 1984 through the selection of native germplasm. This project led to the selection of some superior genotypes, of which two new cultivars

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Mahn Jo Kim, Uk Lee, Kwang Ok Byun, Moon Ho Lee, Myung Suk Jung, and Yong Hee Kwon

A new chestnut cultivar, Mipung ( Castanea kusakuri Blume), was released from Korean native chestnut trees by the chestnut laboratory of the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI) in 2005. This cultivar was first selected from a natural

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C.A. Weber, K.E. Maloney, and J.C. Sanford

The performance of 11 primocane fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivars was evaluated based on yield and fruit weight from the first three seasons compared to the eighth and ninth seasons, respectively. Plot vigor and cane density was evaluated in the eighth season. `Prelude', `Caroline', and `Heritage' did not show a decline in yield in the eighth season compared to the first three seasons. `Kiwigold', `Graton Gold' (sold as `Goldie'), `Watson' (sold as `Ruby'), `Autumn Bliss', `Anne, and `Amity' had substantial yield decreases from early production seasons ranging from -30% to -82%. `Kiwigold' had the highest yield of 4015 kg·ha-1 (3582.2 lb/acre) in the eighth season followed by `Caroline' at 3649 kg·ha-1 (3255.6 lb/acre), `Heritage' at 3614 kg·ha-1 (3224.4 lb/acre), and `Prelude' at 3591 kg·ha-1 (3203.9 lb/acre). Fruit weight did not vary significantly among years, but there were differences among cultivars. In the ninth season, `Ruby' had the largest fruit at 3.1 g (0.11 oz), followed by `Autumn Bliss' at 2.9 g (0.10 oz), and `Caroline' and `Prelude' at 2.8 g (0.10 oz). `Summit', `Goldie', and `Rossana' had the smallest fruit at 1.5 g (0.05 oz). `Goldie' was the most vigorous cultivar and `Anne' the least in the eighth season based on vigor ratings. `Rossana' had the highest cane density at 41.6 canes/m2 (3.86 canes/ft2). Seven of 11 cultivars had cane density of 32 canes/m2 (3.0 canes/ft2) or higher, which is sufficient to produce acceptable yields in cultivars suited to the region. Overall, `Prelude', `Caroline' and `Heritage' and its sports, `Kiwigold' and `Goldie', show the most potential for long production cycles in climates similar to western New York state.