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Walter F. Ray, Geno A. Picchioni, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, and Ryan M. Goss

Turf-type tall fescue is a popular cool-season turfgrass grown throughout much of the United States. Improved turf-type tall fescue cultivars have been developed to provide desirable traits over older tall fescue cultivars such as ‘Kentucky 31

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Hongyan Sun, Kelly Kopp, and Roger Kjelgren

plant water demand that balances atmospheric evaporative pressure with visual, functional, and health performance expectations ( Shaw and Pittenger, 2004 ; White et al., 2004 ). The existing approach to estimating urban landscape irrigation water use is

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Qi Zhang, Sheng Wang, and Kevin Rue

, 2000 ). Soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and development, especially during seed germination and early seedling growth because seeds are more likely to be exposed to saline conditions as a result of evaporation and capillary rise of

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Diana M. Cheng, Gad G. Yousef, and Mary Ann Lila

25 °C on a short daylight cycle (8-h light:16-h dark) with 120 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 irradiance from cool-white fluorescent lights. Spinach shoots (whole aerial portion of plantlets) from each accession (five to nine individual plants per accession) were

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Kamal Aberkani, Xiuming Hao, Damien de Halleux, Martine Dorais, Stephen Vineberg, and André Gosselin

tomato Acta Hort. 747 107 112 Ghosal, M.K. Tiwari, G.N. Srivastava, N.S.L. 2003 Modeling and experimental validation of a greenhouse with evaporative cooling by moving water film over external shade cloth Energy Build. 35 843 850 Jackson, R.D. Hatfield, J

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Michael D. Dukes, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Kelly T. Morgan

conditions than calm conditions. More is also lost during high evaporative demand periods (hot, dry days) than during low-demand periods (cool, cloudy, humid days). Thus, sprinkler irrigation systems usually apply water more efficiently at night (and early

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David R. Bryla, Thomas J. Trout, and James E. Ayars

crops are needed. A dependable method to estimate crop water requirements is a simple procedure whereby water lost by soil evaporation and plant transpiration, referred to collectively as crop evapotranspiration (ET c ), is calculated by multiplying

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Lie-Bao Han, Gui-Long Song, and Xunzhong Zhang

crushing and tearing the leaves, stems, and crowns of the turfgrass plant ( Carrow and Petrovic, 1992 ; Shearman and Beard, 1975a , b ; Trenholm et al., 2000 ). It has been reported that warm-season turfgrass species have more tolerance to wear than cool

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Bielinski M. Santos and Teresa P. Salame-Donoso

). Because of the “evaporative cooling,” another property of water, as 1 g of water evaporates, 540 calories of heat are absorbed from the surrounding environment, thus when compared with the 80 calories released by freezing, nearly seven times more water

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Jennifer M. Bousselot, James E. Klett, and Ronda D. Koski

Lundholm, 2008 ). Additionally, a diversified plant palette on an extensive green roof may be able to adapt to variable moisture conditions and maximize the evaporative cooling benefit, thus extending the benefits of extensive green roofs ( Compton and