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Shawn T. Steed, Allison Bechtloff, Andrew Koeser, and Tom Yeager

, covering the surface with a plastic evaporation barrier resulted in 35% fewer irrigation events and 22% to 50% reduction in the amount of water applied compared with nonmulched control plants. Lohr and Pearson-Mims (2001) reported a reduction in frequency

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Hongyan Sun, Kelly Kopp, and Roger Kjelgren

plant water demand that balances atmospheric evaporative pressure with visual, functional, and health performance expectations ( Shaw and Pittenger, 2004 ; White et al., 2004 ). The existing approach to estimating urban landscape irrigation water use is

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Qi Zhang, Sheng Wang, and Kevin Rue

, 2000 ). Soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and development, especially during seed germination and early seedling growth because seeds are more likely to be exposed to saline conditions as a result of evaporation and capillary rise of

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Diana M. Cheng, Gad G. Yousef, and Mary Ann Lila

25 °C on a short daylight cycle (8-h light:16-h dark) with 120 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 irradiance from cool-white fluorescent lights. Spinach shoots (whole aerial portion of plantlets) from each accession (five to nine individual plants per accession) were

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Kamal Aberkani, Xiuming Hao, Damien de Halleux, Martine Dorais, Stephen Vineberg, and André Gosselin

tomato Acta Hort. 747 107 112 Ghosal, M.K. Tiwari, G.N. Srivastava, N.S.L. 2003 Modeling and experimental validation of a greenhouse with evaporative cooling by moving water film over external shade cloth Energy Build. 35 843 850 Jackson, R.D. Hatfield, J

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Lie-Bao Han, Gui-Long Song, and Xunzhong Zhang

crushing and tearing the leaves, stems, and crowns of the turfgrass plant ( Carrow and Petrovic, 1992 ; Shearman and Beard, 1975a , b ; Trenholm et al., 2000 ). It has been reported that warm-season turfgrass species have more tolerance to wear than cool

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Michael D. Dukes, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Kelly T. Morgan

conditions than calm conditions. More is also lost during high evaporative demand periods (hot, dry days) than during low-demand periods (cool, cloudy, humid days). Thus, sprinkler irrigation systems usually apply water more efficiently at night (and early

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David R. Bryla, Thomas J. Trout, and James E. Ayars

crops are needed. A dependable method to estimate crop water requirements is a simple procedure whereby water lost by soil evaporation and plant transpiration, referred to collectively as crop evapotranspiration (ET c ), is calculated by multiplying

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Bielinski M. Santos and Teresa P. Salame-Donoso

). Because of the “evaporative cooling,” another property of water, as 1 g of water evaporates, 540 calories of heat are absorbed from the surrounding environment, thus when compared with the 80 calories released by freezing, nearly seven times more water

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Larry E. Schrader

apples could not be protected from sunburn by up to four topical applications of this particular whitening agent alone. Some Washington apple growers were using overhead evaporative cooling, shadecloth, or bagging of individual apples to reduce sunburn in