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Thomas Sotiropoulos and Nikolaos Koutinas

not show the postharvest physiological disorders ( Watkins, 2003 ) “external browning” or “water core,” but some years, fruits showed “bitter pit.” However, this problem was resolved by calcium sprays. Fig. 1. Fruits of the apple cultivar Eris. Table 1

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Torrance R. Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson, and Matthew D. Whiting

-fruit sample from each tree was rated for visual defects, including sunburn, bitter pit, and splitting. Fruit russet incidence and severity was recorded in categories of stem bowl, fruit shoulder, smooth solid, and net type on fruit flanks. Fruit

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

intensity of fruit red color, although we took a note of the color intensity and pattern. At harvest, each individual fruit was gently wiped with a damp cloth and the percentage of fruit with visible russet, minor cracks, bitter pit, and sunburn on the fruit

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Xiaoli Ma, Xuefeng Liu, Pingwei Xiang, Shichun Qiu, Xiangcheng Yuan, and Mei Yang

research on fruit cracking of pomegranate ( Bakeer, 2016 ), sunburn of apple ( Lötze et al., 2018 ), top rot in persimmon ( Tang et al., 2013 ), jujube fruit-shrink disease ( Zhang et al., 2019 ), and apple bitter pit ( Wallace and Jones, 2015 ). They found

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Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Javier Obando, Juan Antonio Martínez, Antonio Luis Alarcón, Iban Eduardo, Pere Arús, and Antonio José Monforte

the placental fruit tissue and developed through peripheral mesocarp tissue to give the flesh a translucent aspect and dark-brown color ( Fig. 2E ). NILs SC8-4 and SC10-2 also showed more symptoms of flesh spots or bitter pit as a manifestation of a

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, Lisa W. DeVetter, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

concluded that insufficient Ca or an imbalance of Ca with other nutrients (P, Mg, K, etc.) can cause bitter pit disorder in apple [ Malus × sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] ( de Freitas et al., 2015 ; Ferguson and Watkins, 1989

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Yukihiro Fujime

bitter and sweet taste and the texture is similar to potato/globe artichoke. It can be propagated by scaling and bulblets. Each clove is separated and cooked for chawan-mushi (steamed egg custard). Ginkgo-nuts ( Ginkgo biloba L.) are also used for chawan

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Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Marc A. Dilley, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Cameron P. Peace

‘WA 2’ have shown only moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew ( Podosphaera leucotricha ) and fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ). Fruit rarely exhibits russet, bitter pit, or sunburn in the apple growing regions of central Washington. Genotype

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V. Ognjanov

’, mainly being prone to superficial scald. However, without preharvest calcium sprays, Smaragd’ is less susceptible to bitter pit than ‘Granny Smith’. Principal component analysis provided differentiation between ‘McIntosh Wijcik’, ‘Granny Smith’, and

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Ann Callahan, Chris Dardick, Roberta Tosetti, Donna Lalli, and Ralph Scorza

of his stoneless trait. “There has been known for several hundred years, a wild plum, an unproductive, thorny bush, which bore insignificant, acid, bitter, wild berry-like fruits with only half or two-thirds of a stone” ( Burbank 1914c ). He imported