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Dana Sullivan, Jing Zhang, Alexander R. Kowalewski, Jason B. Peake, William F. Anderson, F. Clint Waltz Jr., and Brian M. Schwartz

heights and trinexapac-ethyl (TE) application are routine maintenance for bermudagrass. The effects of TE on growth inhibition are well documented in many turfgrass species ( Ervin et al., 2002 ; McCarty et al., 2004 ; McCullough et al., 2007 ). Other

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Brian Schwartz, Jing Zhang, Jonathon Fox, and Jason Peake

Hybrid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis ) such as ‘TifSport’ and ‘TifGrand’ are widely used on golf courses, athletic fields, as well as commercial and residential landscapes because of their tolerance to lower and more frequent

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James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, Matthew T. Elmore, Gregory K. Breeden, and Gregory R. Armel

for weed control efficacy in turfgrass and ornamentals ( Armel et al., 2009 ; Brosnan et al., 2010 ). Mesotrione is currently registered for weed control in turf ( Anonymous, 2009b ) and has been shown to injure common bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon

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Marco Schiavon, Brent D. Barnes, David A. Shaw, J. Michael Henry, and James H. Baird

treated with either an herbicide or a plant growth regulator ( Zuk and Fry, 2005 ). Similarly, greater bermudagrass cover was reported if herbicides were applied to perennial ryegrass stands before seeding for species transition ( Jellicorse et al., 2012

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Jordan M. Craft, Christian M. Baldwin, Wayne H. Philley, James D. McCurdy, Barry R. Stewart, Maria Tomaso-Peterson, and Eugene K. Blythe

Ultradwarf bermudagrass is the most prevalent warm-season species used on putting greens in warm, humid regions ( Hartwiger and O’Brien, 2006 ). Ultradwarf bermudagrasses have fine-textured leaf blades, short internodes, high shoot density, and the

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Longxing Hu, Zehui Huang, Shuqian Liu, and Jinmin Fu

., 2011 ). However, the response of plant antioxidant systems to salt varied for different plant species and the tissues ( Mittova et al., 2003 ). Bermudagrass is one of the most widely used warm-season turfgrass species in temperate and tropical regions

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K.L. Hays, J.F. Barber, M.P. Kenna, and T.G. McCollum

This study was conducted to determine rooting characteristics, root carbohydrate content, and performance of 10 bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] genotypes exposed to drought. A greenhouse study was conducted twice to determine root distribution and carbohydrate content throughout the soil profile during simulated drought stress. Root distribution among genotypes and accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrate within roots differed with depths. Root mass at 30, 60, 90, and 150 cm was significantly correlated with turf quality during drought stress (r = 0.72, 0.86, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively) only for one of the two tests. Root carbohydrate distribution was not significantly correlated with turf quality for the selected bermudagrass genotypes.

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Filippo Rimi, Stefano Macolino, and Bernd Leinauer

Over the last few years the use of warm-season grasses, such as bermudagrass and zoysiagrass, has rapidly increased in the Mediterranean countries of Europe ( Croce et al., 2001 ; Volterrani et al., 1997 ). These species are also becoming very

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Ada Baldi, Anna Lenzi, Marco Nannicini, Andrea Pardini, and Romano Tesi

diagnose possible nutritional disorders and to monitor the effectiveness of a fertility program ( Landschoot, 2003 ; McCrimmon, 2001 ). Several studies report nutrient data for warm season turfgrass including bermudagrass ( Cynodon sp.), the most widely

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, and Ted Whitwell

Research was conducted in two studies at the Clemson University Greenhouse Complex, Clemson, S.C., with the objective of evaluating `TifEagle' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) response to paclobutrazol. TifEagle bermudagrass plugs were placed in 40 cm polyvinylchloride containers, with 20.3-cm-diameters and built to U.S. Golf Association specifications with 85 sand: 15 peatmoss (by volume) rootzone mix. Paclobutrazol was applied to separate containers at 0, 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1 (a.i.) per 6 weeks. Minor phytotoxicity occurred with 0.14 kg·ha-1 applications, but turf quality was unaffected. Severe bermudagrass phytotoxicity occurred from paclobutrazol at 0.28 and 0.42 kg·ha-1. Total clipping yield from 12 sampling dates was reduced 65%, 84%, and 92% from 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1, respectively. Root mass after 12 weeks was reduced 28%, 45%, and 61% for turf treated 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1, respectively. Paclobutrazol reduced root length 13%, 19%, and 19% by 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 kg·ha-1, respectively. Turf discoloration and negative rooting responses advocate caution when using paclobutrazol on `TifEagle' bermudagrass. Chemical names used: (+/-)-(R*,R*)-ß-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-alpha-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).