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Shana G. Brown and James E. Klett

morphological and physiological properties of plants, and the effects are often more pronounced in smaller containers ( NeSmith and Duval, 1998 ). Growth of below-ground organs (such as roots) is tied to the growth of the aboveground tissues because they rely on

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William G. Hembree, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, and Brian E. Jackson

with species occurring in eastern Asia and Central America. The genus has traditionally been divided into three sections based on morphological differences, with the Asian sections Deutzia and Mesodeutzia differing in the aestivation of the petals

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Marija Perić, Slavica Dmitrović, Suzana Živković, Biljana Filipović, Marijana Skorić, Ana Simonović, and Slađana Todorović

acid, and 0.1 m sucrose after 4 weeks in culture; ( F ) 4-week-old plant cultured on MS medium with 0.1 m sucrose with developed roots; ( G ) plants growing on different sucrose concentrations ranging from 0.003 m to 1 m ; ( H ) 2-month

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Bärbel Röck-Okuyucu, Meltem Bayraktar, Ismail Hakki Akgun, and Aynur Gurel

base of explants ( Fig. 2B ), whereas on the PGR-free control medium, no callus formation occurred and normal roots were developed. The percentage of explants which showed callus formation ranged between 45.56% (18.16 μ m TDZ) and 100% (all

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Shufu Dong, Lailiang Cheng, and L.H. Fuchigami

New roots of Malus domestica Borkh MM106 apple rootstock were divided into two categories, 1) feeder roots and 2) extension roots based on morphology and their ability to take up NH4 +, were studied. The roots were harvested in August from 1-year-old potted plants growing under natural conditions in Corvallis, Ore. Extension roots were thicker and longer than feeder roots. Average diameter and length were 0.89 and 45.29 mm for extension roots and 0.27 and 5.36 mm for feeder roots. Root special length (cm/g FW) and surface area (cm2/g FW) were 11.94 and 33.17 for extension roots and 108.97 and 93.38 for feeder roots. Maximum uptake rate, Imax, Km, and root absorption power, α (α = Imax•1/Km), for NH4 + absorption were 6.875, 0.721, and 9.48 for extension roots and 4.32, 0.276, and 15.63 for feeder roots. Feeder roots had stronger affinity to NH4 + (low Km) and higher NH4 + absorption power (high α value) than extension roots. The feeder roots were better able to uptake NH4 + at lower external solution concentrations than extension roots according to the nutrient depletion curve, which indicates feeder roots being more efficient than extension roots in nutrient absorption when NH4 + availability was low.

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Juvenal Luza and Ellen G. Sutter

Development of roots on M.26 apple shoots grown in vitro induced by A. rhizogenes was compared with that of roots induced by NAA. Shoots were inoculated with 4-day colonies of A. rhizogenes strain A4 and were sampled at 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks after inoculation. Roots formed on approximately 30% of inoculated shoots. Roots induced by A. rhizogenes typically were agravitropic and branching. The outer layer of cells on these roots, especially on older roots, often resembled callus and sloughed off easily when the plants were transferred. The internal structure of the roots did not differ between the two treatments. Roots induced by NAA always arose endogenously and clear connections to the vascular system of the shoots were apparent. Many roots induced by A. rhizogenes appeared to develop exogenously, arising from anomalous cellular proliferation in the cortex of the apple stems or in callus at the base of the stem. These roots also showed vascular connections to the shoot.

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Francisco García-Sánchez and James P. Syvertsen

balance while restricting Na + absorption in relation to soils with low Ca 2+ ( Yamada et al., 2007 ). Soil ion exchange capacity, mechanical impedance of roots, soil texture, and/or the effect of soil matric potential can influence the availability of

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Andrew Jeffers, Marco Palma, William E. Klingeman, Charles Hall, David Buckley, and Dean Kopsell

growers are likely to choose some plant morphological attribute as a grading criterion for liner stock. Morphological attributes might include caliper measurements, height, root collar diameter (RCD), or the number of first-order lateral roots (FOLR

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Nathan J. Herrick and Raymond A. Cloyd

Fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae), larvae can damage plants grown in greenhouse production systems, especially during propagation ( Cloyd, 2000 ). Fungus gnat larvae feed on plant roots, which inhibits the

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Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Carolyn J. DeMoranville

1800s and has historically been based on two wild selections from native cranberry stands, ‘Early Black’ and ‘Howes’. ‘Early Black’ is the predominant cranberry cultivar in Massachusetts ( DeMoranville, 2004 ). The fruit of ‘Early Black’ are dark in