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Xiaojuan Zong, Jiawei Wang, Li Xu, Hairong Wei, Xin Chen, Dongzi Zhu, Yue Tan, and Qingzhong Liu

, 48, and 72 h, respectively, after treatment, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C for RNA extraction. Plantlets cultured in the normal MS medium at 25 °C with a 16/8-h photoperiod served as the control for the qRT-PCR analysis

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Keun H. Cho, Joo Young Kim, Maria I. Alvarez, Veronica Y. Laux, Lauren K. Valad, Joshua M. Tester, Thomas A. Colquhoun, and David G. Clark

at the University of Florida, which has a constitutive figwort mosaic virus (FMV) 35S promoter and NOS-terminator. After the nucleotide sequence of each plasmid construct was confirmed with Sanger sequencing service (Genewiz, South Plainfield, NJ

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Tingting Zhao, Jingkang Hu, Yingmei Gao, Ziyu Wang, Yufang Bao, Xiaochun Zhang, Huanhuan Yang, Dongye Zhang, Jingbin Jiang, He Zhang, Jingfu Li, Qingshan Chen, and Xiangyang Xu

, re-amplifications were applied using the primers with added restriction site sequences ( Eco RI and Bam HI). Target products were excised from the gel, purified and cloned into tobacco rattle virus RNA2 (TRV2), which was digested with restriction

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

. RNA analysis. Flavonoid gene expression [MYC, MYB, and WD transcription factors, anthocyanin synthase ( Ans ), dihydroflavonol reductase ( Dfr ), and chalcone synthase ( Chs )] was compared under inductive and noninductive environments for

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Wanmei Jin, Jing Dong, Yuanlei Hu, Zhongping Lin, Xuefeng Xu, and Zhenhai Han

-strength vitamins, 30 g·L −1 sucrose, 6 g·L −1 agar, and 0.2 mg·L −1 IBA. Transformation and regeneration of grape explants. The DREB1b gene was isolated from Arabidopsis and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in the

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell, and Judy Thies

melon necrotic spot virus in cucurbits was a significant advantage over soil fumigation with methyl bromide, which does not control this viral disease ( Cohen et al., 2007 ). Meanwhile, tomato yellow leaf curl virus , tomato spotted wilt virus , and

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Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte, and Niranjan Baisakh

thickness (1.2 mm) at 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after skinning and the peels were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at –80 °C for RNA extraction. Three independent roots were used for each time point as replicates. RNA Isolation, cDNA

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John R. Stommel, Gordon J. Lightbourn, Brenda S. Winkel, and Robert J. Griesbach

area of absorption per gram of fresh weight of three replicates. Gene expression. Flowers, immature fruit, and leaves were harvested from actively growing plants, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C. Total RNA was isolated from ≈100

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Hisanao Suzue, Munetaka Hosokawa, and Susumu Yazawa

tissue ( Laimer, 2003 ). Several pathogens such as viruses and viroids can exist in the youngest leaf primordium ( Knapp et al., 1995 ; Rodio et al., 2007 ), making regeneration from very small pieces of tissue containing SAM very important for

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James J. Polashock, Rajeev Arora, Yanhui Peng, Dhananjay Naik, and Lisa J. Rowland

) of the relatively cold-hardy highbush cultivar Bluecrop and the relatively cold-sensitive rabbiteye cultivar Tifblue. RNA was extracted from floral buds of ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Tifblue’ field plants that had accumulated 0 (collected 29 Sept. 2003), 67 (20