Two types of ground kenaf core (fresh and aged) were used in concentrations from 70% to 100% (v/v) in combination with peat for use as greenhouse potting media, and were compared to two commercial mixes in completely randomized-block designs. Greenhouse crops of Boston fern (Nephrolepis), Impatiens, and pansies (Viola) were grown in the different mixes. Irrigation was conducted regularly, based primarily on the average need of all the plants. Kenaf-based media did not retain water as well as the commercial mixes; consequently, impatiens and pansies displayed slower growth rates. However, no differences were noted for fern growth in 70% kenaf compared to commercial mixes. A second study on plants that were grouped by media type and watered as needed provided different results. Ferns grew equally well in all media, but Impatiens grew best in 70% fresh kenaf. Kenaf-based media were less costly than the commercial mixes, and the cost decreased steadily as the kenaf proportion increased. The lower cost of kenaf, coupled with the decreasing availability of peat, should make kenaf-based media an attractive alternative to conventional greenhouse potting media.
R. Dudley Williams, Brian S. Baldwin, and Nancy A. Reichert
George J. Wulster and J. Benton Jones Jr.
Easter Lilies (Lilium Longiflorium) were grown in potting media containing 50% peatmoss and 50% vermiculite V/V or amended with 25, 33, or 50% (V/V) composted municipal sludge.
Macro and micro nutrient levels were determined for the various media formulations using either a water or a Mehlich III extraction procedure. Foliar levels of micro and macro nutrients were determined at anthesis. Final plant height and number of buds per plant were measured for each treatment.
No media formulations were phytotoxic; however, several micro element levels increased with increasing composted sludge content in foliar samples. These increasing foliar levels of Cu, Fe, Zn correlated well with media levels when Mehlich III was the extraction method. A similar correlation was not found with water as the extractant.
Amanda Wiberg, Richard Koenig, and Teresa Cerny-Koenig
Popular press articles report that consumers often experience inconsistent results with retail potting media; however, few reports in the popular or scientific literature have quantified the variability in media properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the variability in physical and chemical properties among different brands of retail potting media and within certain brands. Twenty-four different packages of branded media, and multiple packages of five brands, were acquired from nine regional and national retail chain stores located in the Salt Lake City, Utah, area. Samples were analyzed for five physical and nine chemical properties. The coefficients of variation (cvs) among brands for initial gravimetric water content, bulk density, porosity, water retention, and air space were 85%, 74%, 21%, 59%, and 44%, respectively. The cvs among brands for saturated media (SM) pH, SM extract electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and C:N ratio were 18%, 81%, 132%, 153%, 96%, 78%, 71%, 36%, 45%, and 49%, respectively. Only one of the 24 brands met all published standards for chemical properties of premium media. Thirteen of the brands did not meet standards for NO3-N; 12 did not meet standards for pH; and six did not meet standards for EC. There was more variation in physical and chemical properties among brands than within a brand of media. Label information describing media composition was not consistent with certain physical and chemical properties. No recommendations can be made which would allow consumers to select media that meets published standards. These results indicate better awareness of and/or adherence to standards is needed by the retail media industry to improve product quality and consistency.
Robert R. Tripepi and Mary W. George
De-inked paper sludge from a newsprint mill was evaluated as a substitute for softwood bark in container media. Whips, 1.2 m tall, of `October Glory' red maple (Acer rubrum L.), European birch (Betula pendula Roth), and `Royalty' crabapple (Malus L.) were planted in 15-L plastic pots that contained potting media amended with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, or 90% paper sludge and 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%, 0%, or 0%, respectively, bark (by volume). All media contained 10% sand. After 22 weeks, plant heights, trunk diameters, and shoot dry weights were determined. Initial pH of media increased as the amount of paper sludge in the media increased, with the 90% sludge mix having pH 7.2. Paper sludge had a low initial CEC. Physical properties of all sludge-amended media were suitable for tree growth, but media containing 80% or more paper sludge shrank in volume by 10% to 12% by the end of the study. All maple and crabapple trees grown in all sludge-amended media grew as well as those in 80% bark (control mix). In fact, maple and crabapples trees in 40% sludge produced at least 10% and 36% more total shoot biomass, respectively, than trees in 80% bark. Although birch trees grown in 40% or 60% paper sludge grew as well as control plants, those grown in 80% or more sludge were at least 11% shorter and produced 24% less total shoot biomass (leaves, stems, and trunk dry weight) than control trees. These results demonstrated that de-inked paper sludge was a worthy substitute for up to 40% of the bark in a container medium for the three species tested.
Wayne J. McLaurin
The standard mix used by most nurseries consist of a 9 pine bark: 1 sand. With the ever-increasing cost of bark, nurseries are looking for an alternative. Sawmill residue may hold potential utility as part of a potting mix. Although sawmill residue is highly variable, it can serve as soil bulk as well as an organic medium. The purpose of this study was to determine if old sawmill residue not treated by pathogen-free requirement procedures could be used “as is” as part of a nursery soil mix. For this study, a sample, a typical conglomerate of undetermined wood chips, bark, and soil particles, was obtained from an “old pile” (just how old is not known) of sawmill residue. To determine how this sample would function in a nursery bark/sand mix, tests were run on its physical properties of pore space and water-holding capacity. The sawmill residue had the following characteristics: a mean 44.2% porosity capacity, 23.4% air space, and 20.8% water holding capacity. A standard fertilizer and lime amendment package was added to the sawmill residue in the same rates as a regular nursery mix. The sawmill residue and the standard nursery mix were then blended according to the treatment percentages. The treatments were sawmill residue/standard nursery mix 0/100, 10/90, 30/70, 60/40, and 100/0. The Ilex crenata `Compacta' liners were planted into standard 1-gallon nursery pots filling to just below the rim. The pots were randomly placed on a well-drained rock surface in full sun. No additional fertilizer was used and watering was done as needed. Plants were grown for 1 year. Visual assessments were made throughout the growing period and at harvest. There was no visible difference in any of the treatments as far as overall growth was discerned. The plants were of uniform height and width showing consistent, even growth and good leaf color. Root system growth and development were evaluated visually and over all treatments were uniformly good. No root problems were noted. There was not any plant loss in any treatment over the entire study. Each plant was cut at the soil line and dried for 24 hours at 1150 °C. Dry weights were taken after the plant material had cooled for 4 hours. Results were based on four plants per treatment times four replications for a total of 16 plants per treatment. There was not any measurable growth difference in dry weight among treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4 [sawmill residue/standard nursery mix 0/100 (41.03 g dry weight), 10/90 (39.83 g dry weight), 30/70 (38.98 g dry weight), 60/40 (37.42 g dry weight)]. However, treatment 5 [100/0 (31.03 g dry weight)] was significantly lower when compared to the remaining four treatments. The lower dry weight may be attributed to the 100% sawmill residue being too heavy and not well-drained enough. However, the roots did not show any damage from being too wet. Further work is being done with the sawmill residue.
D. Joseph Eakes and John W. Olive
Two 8- to 9- month [Nutricote 20-7-10 (Type 270) and Osmocote 18-6-121 and two 12- to 14- month [Nutricote 20-7-10 (Type 360) and Osmocote 17-7-121 controlled release fertilizers were preplant incorporated into a 3:1 pine bark:peat moss medium during two potting dates (April 12 and June 6, 1991) at the rate of 1.5 kg N/m. Plant growth of two woody ornamentals, 'Green Luster' Japanese holly and 'Fashion' azalea, and monthly medium solution electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. Growth index [GI = (height + width at widest point + width perpendicular to widest point)/3] response to fertilizer treatment was species specific. Nutricote 20-7-10 (type 360) produced the largest GIs for holly, while GIs for azalea were not affected 420 days after initiation (DAI) of the test. Plants potted in April had greater GIs than those potted in June for the two plant species 420 DAI, regardless of fertilizer type. Osmocote 18-6-12 and 17-7-12 controlled release fertilizers had the greatest medium solution ECs from 90 to 180 DAI.
Ningping Lu and J.H. Edwards
A greenhouse pot study was conducted with a Wynnville sandy loam surface soil to determine the influence of application rates of poultry litter (PL) on growth and nutrient uptake of collard (Brassica oleracea, Acephata Group L., cv. Champion), and the residual effects of PL on growth and nutrient uptake of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Capitata Group L., cv. Rio Verde). PL at 0, 13, 26, 53, and 106 g·kg–1 was incorporated into limed (pH 6.5) and nonlimed (pH 5.2) soil. Collard plants were grown for 52 days. The residual effects of PL were evaluated by growing three successive crops of cabbage without further application of PL (total 218 days). Collard plants were severely damaged or killed within 7 days after transplanting when the application rate of PL exceeded 26 g·kg–1 soil. Maximum dry matter yield of cabbage shifted from 26 to 106 g PL/kg soil during three successive crops. After four successive growth periods, 6% to 37% of N, 3% to 62% of Ca, 20% to 120% of K, 5% to 60% of Mg, and 3% to 25% of P added through PL was removed by plants. The decrease in water-extractable K accounted for the decrease in the soil salinity. Our results suggest that application rates of PL ≥ 53 g·kg–1 soil can result in elevated levels of salts and NH3 in soil, which can produce severe salt stress and seedling injury.
Susan Parent and Annie Duval
Increased use of VAM for pot-grown cultures has sustained certain inquiries as to the compatibility of pesticides and biocontrol agents with this novel practice. Asparagus, Boston fern, geranium, and poinsettia were cultivated in a peat-based medium (SB-Mix) with various fungicides, insecticides, and insect predators. Each plant consisted of an individual trial. All treatments were randomly set up in a complete block experimental design consisting of a noninoculated control and pre-inoculated with Glomus intraradices, in combination with the different pesticides used for a given plant species. Commonly used pesticides in greenhouses were chosen, and the concentration applied was as recommended by the manufacturer. A control, consisting of water, was included with the pesticides tested. The effect of a given pesticide varied from one plant species to another concerning root colonization by the VAM and plant growth. The poinsettia growth results were significantly superior with the water-treated plants than with those that received insecticidal soap, dienochlor, and dicofol on a regular basis. Colonization rates, however, were low with all treatments, but significantly lower with oxine benzoate. Growth parameters and colonization rates of geranium, Boston fern, and asparagus showed no significant differences between water and pesticide treatments, even those treated with benomyl, which has been reported in the past to reduce colonization rates. These results show that a good pesticide and insect predator integration control program will not alter the VAM colonization rates.
Hye-Ji Kim and William B. Miller
The effect of GA4+7 plus benzyladenine (BA) on postproduction quality was investigated in `Seadov' tulips (Tulipa gesneriana). Potted tulips at half-colored bud stage or full-bloom stage were sprayed with a range of GA4+7 plus BA, and placed in a simulated consumer environment (SCE) in order to determine effectiveness of the compound at each stage. Regardless of plant stage, treatment with GA4+7 plus BA effectively improved individual flower longevity and whole plant longevity in the range of concentrations tested. GA4+7 plus BA had a strong effect on enhancing flower longevity when sprayed to mature (fully colored) buds, and a lesser effect on immature (green) buds, and whole plant longevity increased with higher doses of GA4+7 plus BA. When applied to open flowers, however, concentrations over 50 mg·L–1 reduced individual flower and whole plant longevities relative to lower concentrations resulting from unwanted full-opening of older flowers and exaggerated gynoecium growth. Concentrations as low as 10 mg·L–1 significantly increased longevity of tulip flowers of all age classes. The effects of enhancing postproduction quality of `Seadov' pot tulips were primarily derived from the BA component of the compound.
Shiv K. Reddy
Various barks, aged and composted to different degrees, are used in potting mixes. These differences have different effects on plant growth. It was observed that electrical conductivities (ECs) of the bark mixes that reduced plant growth were lower when compared to the ECs of the mixes that did not reduce growth, despite the same fertilization. This difference in EC diminished over time, differently for different barks. The decrease in EC was mainly due to a decrease in N. Apparently, nutrients were adsorbed or immobilized, which decreased their availability to the plants. This observation may be used to assess the suitability of a bark. The relative decrease in EC or N of similarly fertilized bark mix vs. no bark, peat mix (that does not reduce EC) may indicate the relative unsuitability of the bark, as related to nutrition. The amount of decrease in EC may also indicate the amount of additional fertilization to be provided to the bark mix during its use. The same method may also be applicable to other wood wastes, such as kenaf, sawdust, etc.