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G.E. Boyhan, J.D. Norton, and J.A. Pitts

The dwarfing characteristics of St. Julien and Pixy rootstocks, measured by shoot growth, were evident with `AU-Amber' and `AU-Producer' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) scions. Dwarfing did not occur with `AU-Rubrum'. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) was reduced with `AU-Amber', `AU-Producer', and `AU-Rubrum' scions on St. Julien and Pixy rootstocks. After 3 years, tree survival was 94% for Lovell; 89%, Halford; 57%, Nemaguard; 75%, Nemared; 83%, St. Julien; and 47%, Pixy. Tree survivability was significantly lower on Nemaguard and Pixy rootstocks than on Lovell and Halford. Multiple regression of total shoot growth, TCA, and survivability against foliar nutrient content resulted in the following significant equations: 0.460Mg - 0.210Mn, 0.236B - 0.487Mn, and 0.359N + 0.398Ca - 0.267P - 0.360Fe for each, respectively. Growth, survivability, and foliar nutrient content are significantly affected by rootstock in plum production.

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T.G. Beckman, W.R. Okie, A.P. Nyczepir, P.L. Pusey, and C.C. Reilly

Nearly 5000 seedling trees representing more than 100 peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] and plum (Prunus spp.) lines were planted at a 4 × 0.6-m spacing in Jan. 1983, on a site with a known history of peach tree short life (PTSL) and Armillaria root rot (ARR). Trees were arranged in a randomized complete-block with eight replicates of six trees each. Beginning in Spring 1984 and each year thereafter the cause of tree death was determined. At the end of 9 years, 50% of the trees had succumbed to PTSL and 35% had been killed by ARR apparently caused by Armillaria tabescens. Analysis of the data for trees killed by ARR showed a wide range in mortality, some peach lines appeared significantly more tolerant to ARR than others. Plum lines derived from native North American species also appeared to be a potential source of improved tolerance. We did not establish whether ARR tolerance is affected by PTSL.

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J.D. Norton, G.E. Boyhan, and J.A. Pitts

The dwarfing characteristics of St. Julien and Pixy rootstocks as measured by shoot growth and trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) was evident. Tree survival was significantly reduced after 3 years on Nemaguard and Pixy rootstocks. None of the elements measured by foliar nutrient analysis were below the minimum for plums; however, significant multiple regression equations for total shoot growth, TCSA, and survivability were evident with R 2 of ≈0.30 in all three cases.

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Carlos H. Crisosto, F. Gordon Mitchell, and Zhiguo Ju

The susceptibility to chilling injury (CI) or internal breakdown (IB) was evaluated in the most currently planted yellow- and white-flesh peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and nectarine [Prunus persica var. nectarine (L.) Batsch] and plum [Prunus salicina Lindel] cultivars from different breeding sources and fruit types. Cultivars were segregated into three categories (Cat. A, B, and C) according to their susceptibility to CI or IB symptoms (mealiness and flesh browning) when exposed to 0 °C or 5 °C storage temperatures. Cultivars in Cat. A did not develop any symptoms of CI after 5 weeks of storage at either temperature. Cultivars in Cat. B developed symptoms only when stored at 5 °C within 5 weeks of storage. Cultivars were classified in Cat. C when fruit developed CI symptoms at both storage temperatures within 5 weeks of storage. Most of the yellow- and white-flesh peach cultivars developed IB symptoms when stored at both storage temperatures (Cat. C). Most of the new nectarine cultivar introductions did not develop CI symptoms when stored at 0 °C or 5 °C after 5 weeks (Cat. A). Three out of six plum cultivars tested had CI symptoms within 5 weeks storage at 0 °C. However, all of the plum cultivars tested developed CI symptoms when stored at 5 °C (Cat. B). The importance of proper temperature management during postharvest handling was demonstrated.

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P. Martínez-Gómez, M. Rubio, and F. Dicenta

The resistance to a Dideron isolate of Plum pox virus, which causes sharka disease, of four apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars from North America (`Harlayne', `Henderson', `Sunglo', and `Veecot') and a Greek cultivar Lito (a cross of American cultivar Stark Early Orange × Greek cultivar Precoce Tirynthos) was evaluated. `Stark Early Orange' and `Canino', previously rated as resistant and susceptible respectively, were included as controls. Resistance, herein, was defined as inability to infect plants by graft-inoculation and negative assays by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cultivars found to be resistant were: `Harlayne', `Henderson', `Sunglo', `Lito', and `Stark Early Orange'. Cultivars Veecot and Canino were susceptible.

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Zhenyu Huang, Fei Shen, Lehan Xia, Long Chen, Zexuan Cui, and Yuling Chen

Plum, belonging to the genus Prunus of Rosaceae family, is one the most important fruit crops in the world, with a high economic value and an extensive genetic diversity. China is now the largest plum producer, with an annual production of 6

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José Luis León and Enrique Troyo-Diéguez

The high cost of inputs and water deficit in arid lands demand the use of more drought tolerant species into the agricultue. The flora of the deserts offer a variety of fruits and vegetables that may diversify horticulture. `Cimarrón' wild plum tree or “ciruelo cimarrón” (Cyrtocarpa edulis Brand.:Anacardiaceae) is one of the species with potential importance in arid lands. C. edulis is an endemic tree of the meridional portion of the Baja California peninsula, occurring along arroyos and on gentle slopes in sandy soils. The flesh of the fruits is edible, with a slight acid tang, and is used locally. Actual exploitation is based on the fruit harvest in natural dry forest and xerophilous shrubs, where average density is near 100 trees/Ha. There is a growing interest in marketing the dried fruits, especially for the snack industry, hence, the need to develop a breeding program in order to establish it as a reliable fruit crop.

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B.L. Topp, W.B. Sherman, D.A. Huber, and S.B. Linda

Analysis of a five-parent diallel in a greenhouse estimated general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) effects for resistance of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. and hybrids) to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye stem canker, as measured by length of inoculated cankers, canker appearance rating, and canker expansion rate. `Friar' and `Gulfruby' were the most susceptible parents. `Burbank', `Wilson', and' Wade' had similar GCA values for length of inoculated cankers, but' Wade' was the superior parent in transmitting canker resistance, as measured by canker appearance rating. SCA was not important in determining the performance of a cross. Canker appearance rating was the best measure of resistance in the greenhouse tests and provided a greater separation of GCA estimates and lower coefficient of variation.

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Luís Goulão, Luisa Monte-Corvo, and Cristina M. Oliveira

Variability of commercial plum (Prunus L. sp.) cultivars is unknown since breeding often involves intercrossing hybrids with several species but has been based on a low number of parents. Molecular markers like amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), which sample multiple loci simultaneously, have become increasingly popular, and were used to characterize 24 diploid and four hexaploid cultivars of plum. Seven AFLP and six ISSR primers were used, and resulted in amplification of 379 and 270 products, respectively. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrograms, based on similarity coefficients, reflected a clear separation between diploid and hexaploid plums. Among diploid plums, two pairs of cultivars were relatively distinct from the rest, namely `Golden Japan' and `Methley' and `Ozark Premier' and `Songold'. Furthermore, several cultivars were grouped together both with AFLP and ISSR analysis: 1) `Ambra', `Red Beaut', and `Black Beaut', 2) `Black Diamond' and `Royal Diamond', 3) `June Rose', `Santa Rosa', and `Royal Red', and iv) `Freedom', `Larry Ann', and `Queen Rosa'. Although the phenetic classification obtained by the two methods were similar (r = 0.73, for the diploid group), ISSR had a higher reproducibility and percentage of polymorphisms (87.4% vs. 62.8%) than AFLP. Methodological aspects of both markers systems are discussed. Results obtained suggest that the AFLP and ISSR approaches are valuable tools for identification of specific genotypes and analysis of phenetic relationships in plum.

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Jorge Pinochet

‘Replantpac’ is a new plum–almond hybrid selected by Agromillora Iberia, S.L., Barcelona, Spain, for use mainly as a rootstock for Japanese plum ( Prunus salicina Lindl.), peach, and nectarine [ P. persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars, but it can also