Research at Padova Univ., Italy, during Summer 2003, was carried out to determine the effect on nitrogen fertilization on yield and canopy reflectance of sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). Pepper var. Tolomeo LRP 4993 (Syngenta) was transplanted into plots (24 m2) on 20 May, maintaining 40 cm between plants and 75 cm between rows (3.3 plant per m2). The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Treatments were 6 nitrogen fertilization rates ranging from 0 to 300 kg·ha-1. Nitrogen was distributed at planting and as top dressing, 44 days after planting. All other production techniques were typical of pepper production in the Veneto region. Beginning the second week after transplanting, canopy reflectance was measured weekly using a multispectral radiometer MSR 87 (Cropscan Rochester, Minn.). Fruits were harvested at breaking color stage starting from 21 July to 9 Oct. (8 harvests). At harvest, total and marketable yield, fruit averaged weight and nitrogen content were determined. Maximum yield was recorded at the 120 kg·ha-1 nitrogen treatment, while higher rates proved ineffective at increasing production. Nitrogen rates positively affected fruit weight. The nitrate content of fruits also increased with the nitrogen rates although it remained below the level dangerous for human health. Canopy reflectance was able to detect the different nitrogen treatments only during the late stages of the growth cycle making difficult its use as a tool to drive nitrogen fertilization.
Paolo Sambo*, Daniele Borsato, and Giorgio Gianquinto
Haibo Liu and Richard J. Hull
Economic and environmental concerns over nitrogen (N) fertilization of turfgrasses are prompting serious considerations of how to best use various N pools in turf-soil ecosystems. Nitrogen in clippings is receiving special consideration but information on how large and variable this N source might be for different turfgrasses is limited. Therefore, a field study investigated growth of and N recovery in clippings from 10 cultivars each of kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) turf at the University of Rhode Island Turfgrass Research Station, Kingston, during 1990 and 1991 growing seasons. All turf had been established in 1985, 1986 or 1987 on an Enfield silt loam (Coarse loamy over sandy skeletal, mixed, mesic, Typic Dystrochrepts) and maintained under N fertilization rate of 147 kg N ha/year. Daily clipping growth rate (DCG), leaf blade N concentration (NC), and daily N recovery rate (DNR) in clippings were compared across species and cultivars. Seasonal clipping yields ranged from 5152 kg dry weight/ha for tall fescue to 3680 kg·ha–1 for perennial ryegrass. Significant species differences in the amount and seasonal pattern of N recovery were identified. Cultivar differences in N recovery were greatest for kentucky bluegrass but much less for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Total N recovery in clippings ranged from 260 to 111 kg N/ha/year generally exceeded N supplied as fertilizer, thus emphasizing potential importance of clipping N in turf management.
Russell Johnston, Vernon Shattuck, and John Seliga
The influence of various crop rotations on the marketable yield of processing tomatoes (Lvcopersicon esculentum) in southwestern Ontario was investigated. The study was conducted for three years using nine and eight crop rotations at Leamington and Dresden, respectively. Four rates of nitrogen, 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha were applied to each rotation. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot experimental design. Tomato yields were generally higher at both locations for all rotations compared to continuously grown tomatoes (control). The highest yields were obtained when tomatoes were grown in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) rotation and rotations involving rye (Secale cereale) or winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Tomato yields from the soybean (Glycine max) rotation and from continuously grown tomatoes were similar. At both locations, yields from continuously grown tomatoes increased with increasing rates of nitrogen fertilizer. Optimal yields for each rotation varied with each individual rate of nitrogen. Tomatoes grown in the alfalfa rotation showed the least response to higher rates of applied nitrogen. Our data indicates that certain crop rotations and nitrogen fertilization rates can be used together to enhance the yield of processing tomatoes.
Etaferahu Takele, Jewell L. Meyer, Mary L. Arpaia, David E. Stottlemyer, and Guy W. Witney
The effect of integrated applications of various irrigation and fertilization rates on productivity (yield and size) and returns of the `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) have been analyzed from 1987 to 1991 in western Riverside County. Eighteen treatment combinations comprised of three irrigation levels [80%, 100%, and 120% crop water use (ETc)], three N fertilizer levels (0.16, 0.7, and 1.4 kg/tree per year), and Zn (0 and 0.2 kg/tree per year) were included in the analysis. Using a partial budgeting procedure, returns after costs were calculated for each treatment combination. Costs of treatments, harvesting, hauling, and marketing were subtracted from the value of the crop. The value of the crop was calculated as the sum of crop returns in each size category. Three years of data on the relationship between irrigation and N showed 1) irrigating at 80% ETc would be ineffective even at very high water prices; 2) for groves where 100% ETc is sufficient, its application with either low or medium N would be beneficial; and 3) at higher irrigation (120% ETc), N application should be at or beyond the medium level.
Sanliang Gu, Leslie H. Fuchigami, Lailiang Cheng, Sung H. Guak, and Charles C.H. Shin
Seedling plugs of `Early Girl' tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were potted in peatmoss and perlite (60:40% by volume) medium, fertilized with 8, 16, 24, or 32 g NutriCote Total controlled-release fertilizer (type 100, 13N–5.67P–10.79K plus micronutrients) per pot (2.81 l), and treated with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, or 7.5% antitranspirant GLK-8924 solution, at the four true-leaf stage. Plants were tipped at the second inflorescence and laterals were removed upon emergence. Leaf stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and growth were depressed by GLK-8924. In contrast, higher fertilization rate increased plant growth but leaf stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were not affected until 3 weeks after GLK-8924 treatment. With 24 g NutriCote per pot, lamina N concentration in GLK-8924 treated plants was 12.5-fold of that in untreated plants, regardless of GLK-8924 concentration. Lamina P, K, Fe, and Cu were greater while S, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, and Zn were not affected by GLK-8924. The reduced growth by GLK-8924 may be due to the reduced stomatal conductance while the increased growth by high fertilization may be due to influences on plant nutritional status.
Matthew W. Kent and David Wm. Reed
Greenhouse cultural methods must change rapidly to minimize runoff and to keep pace with environmental regulation aimed at protecting water resources. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effect of N fertilization rate on New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens ×hawkeri) and peace lily (Spathiphyllum Schott) in an ebb-and-flow subirrigation system. Maximum growth response for impatiens was centered around 8-mM N levels as measured by root and shoot fresh and dry weight, height, leaf number, leaf area, and chlorophyll concentration. For peace lily, growth peaked around 10 mM N. Growing medium was divided into three equal layers: top, middle, and bottom. Root distribution favored the middle and bottom layers, and the relative distribution of roots was consistent as N level increased. Soluble salts remained low in middle and bottom layers at N concentrations below 10 mM, but increased significantly for all soil layers at levels above 10 mM. The top layer contained two to five times higher soluble salt levels than in the middle or bottom layers at all N levels. Increased nitrate concentration mimicked increases in soluble salts, while pH decreased as N concentration increased for both impatiens and peace lily.
Catherine S.M. Ku and John C. Bouwkamp
Growth performance of potted `Peterstar Pink', `Top White', `Red Sails', and `Red Success' were evaluated in eight substrates and three fertilization rates. The substrates included Sunshine Mix 1 and Pro Gro 300S as control, and compost blends at 33%, 50%, and 67% of final substrate volumes mixed with peat and perlite (1:1). The blends included 2:1, 1:1, or 1:2 ratio of polymer dewatered biosolids (PDB):poultry litter (PL) and PDB: yard wastes (YW). Fertilization was applied twice weekly at 75, 100, and 150 mg/L N from 19N--2.2P-16.6K. Plants grown in Sunshine Mix 1 performed better than those grown in Pro Gro 300S. The growth parameters measured improved as the N rates increased for both controls. Plant diameter, grade, and dry weight of plants grown in 150 mg/L N treatment were usually similar to those in 100 mg/L N and were not 11% more than those at the lowest N treatment. The 1 PDB: 1 PL blend at the high N treatment produced premium-quality plants, and all remaining PDB:PL treatments produced good quality plants. The PDB:YW blends that received 100 and 150 mg/L N produced premium quality plants. The PDB:YW blends at the low N treatment produced slightly better quality plants than those grown in PDB:PL at the 75 mg/L N and were similar in quality as those grown in Sunshine Mix 1 at the 150 mg/L N treatment.
Matthew W. Kent and David Wm. Reed
Greenhouse cultural methods must minimize runoff to keep pace with environmental regulation aimed at protecting water resources. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effect of N fertilization rate on New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens ×hawkeri) and peace lily (Spathiphyllum Schott) in an ebb-and-flow subirrigation system. Maximum growth response for impatiens was centered around 8 mm N levels as measured by root and shoot fresh and dry weight, height, leaf number, leaf area, and chlorophyll concentration. For peace lily, growth peaked at about 10 mm N. Growing medium was divided into three equal layers: top, middle, and bottom. Root distribution favored the middle and bottom layers, and the relative distribution of roots was consistent as N level increased. EC remained low in middle and bottom layers at N concentrations below 10 mm, but increased significantly for all layers at levels above 10 mm. The EC for the top layer was 2 to 5 times higher than in the middle or bottom layers at all N levels. Increased nitrate concentration paralleled increased EC, while pH decreased as N concentration increased for impatiens and peace lily.
Brent K. Harbaugh, David A. DeVoll, and R. Zalewski
Phosphorus is considered a major pollutant of lakes in central Florida, and growers producing crops in the Lake Okeechobee watershed are being challenged to reduce use of P fertilizer. Caladium (Caladium×hortulanum Birdsey) tubers are produced on organic soils within this area. This study was done to determine if current commercial P fertilization rates could be reduced or eliminated, since these organic soils have high levels of water extractable P (Pw). Two farms were selected with low (Farm A 19 lb/acre; 21 kg·ha-1) or high (Farm B 59 lb/acre; 66 kg·ha-1) preplant Pw levels. Production of caladium tubers with the standard grower P fertilization practice (Farm A = P at 39.2 lb/acre; 43.9 kg·ha-1, or Farm B = P at 15.9 lb/acre; 17.8 kg·ha-1) was compared to production with either one-half the standard grower rate of P or no P. The percentage of harvested tubers in each of five grades and the estimated harvested tuber value index were similar irrespective of the amount of P fertilizer used on either farm. These results indicate that P could be eliminated from the fertilization program for caladium tuber production on organic soils.
Previous research has shown that nitrogen fertilization rates may influence fruit quality characteristics of navel oranges [(Citrus sinensis) (L.) Osbeck]. The objective of this study was to determine, for equal seasonal N applications, if the timing of the last seasonal nitrogen fertigation promotes early fruit maturity or affects fruit size. The study consisted of four treatments with the total seasonal allocation of nitrogen fertilizer applied by ≈1 May, 1 June, 1 July, and 1 Aug. in an experimental site in a commercial orange grove in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. The source of nitrogen was a liquid calcium ammonium nitrate injected through the irrigation system. No significant treatment differences in soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, the ratio of soluble solids concentration to titratable acidity, percent juice, fruit color and fruit diameter were detected in fruit sampled in October. Similarly, in September, no significant differences in leaf nitrogen were found among treatments. These results do not support the hypothesis that applying the total seasonal application of nitrogen early in the season results in earlier orange maturity or larger fruit size, at least not for trees that have leaf N in the optimum range.