`Gala' apples (Malus × domestica Borkh) were harvested at optimum maturity for long-term storage, precooled overnight at 0 °C, treated with 1 μL·L-1; 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 hours at 0 °C, and then placed in controlled atmosphere (CA) to determine the storage regime that would have the least negative impact on post-storage aroma volatile production. Fruit were stored at 0° and 2.5° C in ultra low oxygen (0.6% O2 -0.6% CO2; ULOCA), low oxygen (1.2% O2 -1.2% CO2; LOCA) and standard (2.5% O2 -2.5% CO2; SCA) CA for 120 and 240 days, and in ambient air for 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. Post-storage fruit volatiles were quantified by headspace analysis using a solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) probe and FID-GC, and key volatiles were identified by GC-MS. Fruit volatile production was greatest at harvest, and decreased thereafter for fruit held in air and CA for up to 150 or 240 days, respectively. 1-MCP treatment resulted in reduced rates of respiration, ethylene and volatile production, regardless of storage regime, and resulted in a reduced production rate of all the major volatile compounds, including esters, alcohols, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Post-storage volatile production was the least in fruits removed from 0 °C in ULO, followed by LO, SCA, and then air. 1-MCP treatment inhibited post-storage volatile production in CA- and air-stored fruit by as much as 95 percent. However, recovery of aroma was delayed significantly in fruit which had been held at 0 °C vs. 2.5 ° C, suggesting aroma volatile synthesis in `Gala' is chilling sensitive.
Harmander Pal Singh*, Dennis P. Murr, Gopi Paliyath, and Jennifer R. DeEll
John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, Peter A. Harrison, R. Andrew Schofield, and Jennifer R. DeEll
A final harvest window (FHW), expressed as Streif Index coefficients [firmness/(percentage soluble solids concentration × starch index)], was developed for identifying maximum fruit quality for strains of `McIntosh', `Cortland', and `Jonagold' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) following 8 months of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. The Streif Index was calculated during nine preharvest (twice per week) intervals and four weekly harvests over three seasons. The relationship between Streif Index (dependent variable) and day of year (independent variable) of the preharvest and harvest samples was then derived by negative first-order linear regression equations that had parameter estimate (b1) probability values ≤0.0001 for all of the strains. Apples from the four harvest periods were stored in standard CA storage for 8 months and then subjected to a 7-day shelf-life test at 0 °C followed by 5 days at 20 °C. Poststorage quality data were categorized and combined to produce an overall fruit quality rating scale. For each strain, the final harvest (i.e., day of year) was identified as that which directly preceded at least a 10% drop in the poststorage fruit quality rating compared with the first harvest rating. The FHW, expressed as Streif Index coefficients via the regression of Streif Index (Y) on day of year (X), was then calculated as the 3-year final harvest mean with the upper and lower window limits being determined by the standard deviation of the mean. The lower to upper FHW boundaries ranged from 4.18 to 5.34, 4.12 to 5.46, 4.51 to 5.68, 5.23 to 5.99, and 1.38 to 2.34 for Redmax, Marshall and Summerland `McIntosh', Redcort `Cortland' and Wilmuta `Jonagold', respectively. The practical utility of the Streif Index method lies in the ease with which apple fruit maturity at harvest can be evaluated for its suitability for long-term CA storage.
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Kevin L. Goodner, James P. Mattheis, and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (`Gala', `Delicious', `Granny Smith' and `Fuji')], pretreated or nontreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 0.6 to 1.0 μL·L–1 for 18 hours at 20 °C), were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA, 1 to 1.5 kPa O2; 1 to 2 kPa CO2) or in regular atmosphere (RA) for up to 8 months at 1 °C. Firmness, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids content (SSC), and volatile abundance were analyzed every month directly or after transfer to air at 20 °C for 1 week to determine effect of 1-MCP, storage atmosphere and storage time on apple quality immediately after cold storage and after simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C. The 1-MCP ± CA treatments delayed ripening and prolonged storage life as indicated by delayed loss of firmness and TA in all four cultivars during storage. The 1-MCP ± CA also slightly delayed loss of SSC for `Gala' but had no effect on SSC levels for the other cultivars. There were differences among treatments for firmness and TA content [(1-MCP + RA) > CA] for `Gala', `Delicious', and `Granny Smith' apples, but not for `Fuji'. These differences were generally exacerbated after transfer of fruit to 20 °C for 1 week. A combination of 1-MCP + CA was generally best [(1-MCP + CA) > (1-MCP + RA) or CA] for maintaining `Delicious' firmness and TA. However, the treatments that were most effective at retaining TA and firmness also retained the least volatiles. The results indicate that the efficacy of 1-MCP and CA in maintaining apple quality factors is cultivar dependent and that 1-MCP + RA may be a viable alternative to CA for optimal eating quality for some cultivars.
Mark D. Shelton, Victor Mendez, Virginia R. Walter, and David Brandl
Refrigerated (2 °C) controlled atmospheres significantly increased the mortality of green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] in laboratory experiments. However, insect mortality during marine shipment in mixedload containers at 0.5 °C did not significantly increase in a controlled atmosphere. In laboratory experiments, mortality of green peach aphids ranged from 32.8% in the refrigerated control to 96.8% after storage in 0.10% O2 for 4 d followed by 7 d in 3% O2 with 5% CO2. When stored under these same conditions, western flower thrips mortality was 71% compared to 16% mortality in the refrigerated control. Following an 11-day marine shipment from California to Guam in a controlled atmosphere, vase life was extended for most of the 20 California cut-flower and foliage products compared to those shipped in the refrigerated air control.
M.C.N. Nunes, A.M.M.B. Morais, J.K. Brecht, and S.A. Sargent
`Chandler' strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) harvested three-quarter colored or fully red were stored in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 5% O2 + 15% CO2 at 4 or 10 °C to evaluate the influence of fruit maturity and storage temperature on the response to CA. Quality evaluations were made after 1 and 2 weeks in air or CA, and also after 1 and 2 weeks in air or CA plus 1 day in air at 20 °C. By 2 weeks, strawberries of both maturities stored in air at 10 °C were decayed, however, strawberries stored in CA at 4 or 10 °C or air at 4 °C had no decay even after 2 weeks plus 1 day at 20 °C. Three-quarter colored fruit stored in either air or CA remained firmer, lighter (higher L* value) and purer red (higher hue and chroma values) than fully red fruit, with the most pronounced effect being on CA-stored fruit at 4 °C. CA was more effective than air storage in maintaining initial anthocyanin and soluble solids contents (SSC) of three-quarter colored fruit and fruit stored at 10 °C. Strawberries harvested three-quarter colored maintained initial hue and chroma values for 2 weeks in CA at 4 °C, becoming fully red only when transferred to air at 20 °C. Although three-quarter colored fruit darkened and softened in 10 °C storage, the CA-stored fruit remained lighter colored and as firm as the at-harvest values of fully red fruit. After 1 or 2 weeks in CA at either 4 or 10 °C plus 1 day at 20 °C, three-quarter colored fruit also had similar SSC levels but lower total anthocyanin contents than the initial levels in fully red fruit. CA maintained better strawberry quality than air storage even at an above optimum storage temperature of 10 °C, but CA was more effective at the lower temperature of 4 °C. Three-quarter colored fruit responded better to CA than fully red fruit, maintaining better appearance, firmness, and color over 2 weeks storage, while achieving similar acidity and SSC with minimal decay development.
Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell
studied, but it has been reported to be exacerbated by controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions with elevated CO 2 (3 kPa) and reduced O 2 (0 kPa) ( Contreras et al., 2014 ). CO 2 injury of apple fruit generally exhibits either of two types of symptoms
C.B. Watkins and J.F. Nock
The inhibitor of ethylene binding, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been applied to `Gala', `Cortland', `McIntosh', `Empire', `Delicious', `Jonagold', and `Law Rome' apples under air and/or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage conditions. 1-MCP gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 2 mL·L–1. Effects of 1-MCP were greater in CA than air storage. A dose response of internal ethylene concentrations and flesh firmness to 1-MCP was found in cultivars such as `McIntosh' and `Law Rome', whereas in others, such as `Delicious' and `Empire', ripening was generally prevented by all 1-MCP concentrations. We have further investigated the effects of 1-MCP on `McIntosh' by increasing rates of the chemical to 50 mL·L–1, and confirming that fruit of this cultivar respond poorly if fruit have entered the climacteric prior to 1-MCP application. Efficacy of 1-MCP is affected by cultivar and storage conditions, and that successful commercial utilization of the chemical will require understanding of these relationships.
E.A. Baldwin, T.M.M. Malundo, R. Bender, and J.K. Brecht
Mango fruit, cv. Tommy Atkins, were harvested from two grove sites in south Florida at mature green (MG) and tree ripe (TR) maturities. The fruit were either coated with one of two coatings (NS = Nature Seal® 4000, a polysaccharide coating, or CW = carnauba wax) or left uncoated (control) and stored in humidified air or held in a controlled atmosphere (CA = 5% O2 plus 25% CO2) at 12 °C for 21 days followed by 2 days in air at 20 °C. There were 12 fruit for each treatment/maturity stage combination replicated by grove site. After storage, the pulp was homogenized for later consumer or descriptive panel analysis. Measurements for total soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), and flavor volatile compounds were also made. TR-harvested fruit were sweeter and generally more aromatic than MG-fruit as determined by sensory and/or chemical analysis. NS-coated fruit were more sour, bitter, and astringent compared to controls and CA-treated fruit. NS-coated fruit received lower overall consumer scores than CW-coated fruit, but were not different from controls or CA-treated fruit. This was reflected also in descriptive panel ratings. There were no differences based on storage treatment for SS, pH, or TA; however, NS-coated fruit were higher in acetaldehyde, methanol and ethanol compared to control or CA-treated fruit. Correlation and regression analysis showed significant relationships between sensory and chemical data.
David Rudell, James Mattheis, and John Fellman
Diphenylamine (DPA) is used for superficial scald control in apple fruit. A number of DPA derivatives resulting from C-nitration, C-hydroxylation, O-methylation, and N-nitrosation can be present in DPA-treated apple fruit after storage. The presence of the compounds may be indicative of metabolic processes that lead to scald development. Therefore, apple peel DPA and DPA derivative content in fruit treated at harvest with DPA or DPA plus 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was assayed upon removal of fruit from controlled atmosphere (CA) and regular atmosphere (RA) storage and during a 14-d post-storage ripening period. Apples were also treated at harvest with different concentrations of DPA and assayed after 6 months CA storage to confirm recovery of DPA and DPA derivatives is linear over a wide concentration range. Harvest maturity notably affected peel DPA and 4-hydroxydiphenylamine (4OHDPA) content. Post-storage ripening, 1-MCP treatment, and CA storage had varied affects on DPA derivative content, suggesting reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, such as •OH, •NO, and •NO2, or enzyme catalyzed reactions may be generated during ripening and senescence related physiological processes. Consistent correlations between scald incidence and content of specific derivatives were not observed.
Jinhe Bai*, Paul Chen, Elizabeth Baldwin, and James Mattheis
`Bartlett' pears were treated with 300 nL·L-1 1-MCP at 20°C for 24 h shortly after harvest, and were stored at -1 °C in either regular atmosphere (RA) or controlled atmosphere (CA: 1.5 kPa O2 / 0.5 kPa CO2). After 2 and 4 months of RA storage, or 4 months of CA storage, fruit were pre-conditioned at 10 °C, 15 °C or 20 °C for 5, 10, or 20 days, respectively. Pre-conditioned fruit were then held at 20 °C for 14 days to simulate marketing conditions. Flesh firmness (FF) and extractable juice (EJ) were monitored during the marketing period. The optimal stage of ripeness for `Bartlett' pears was defined to be when FF decreases to 27 N and EJ decreases to 55 mL/100 g. The proper pre-conditioning combinations of temperature and duration were 15 °C or 20 °C for 10 d or 10 °C for 20 d if the fruit had been stored in RA for 2 months, 10 °C or 15 °C for 5 d if the fruit had been in RA for 4 months, and 20 °C for 10 d or 10°C for 20 d if the fruit had been in CA for 4 months, for which combinations the fruit ripened within a week and maintained quality for 14 days at 20 °C. The treatment combinations of lower temperature and/or shorter duration times in pre-conditioning delayed the ripening response of the fruit, and combinations of higher temperature and/or longer duration times in pre-conditioning resulted in a shorter marketing life because of senescence breakdown, in comparison the optimal combinations mentioned above. These results indicate that pre-conditioning regimes for 1-MCP treated `Bartlett' pears are storage atmosphere and time dependent. Generally, CA stored fruit needed more preconditioning (in terms of higher temperature and/or longer duration) than did RA stored fruit.