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Cecil Pounders, Tim Rinehart, Ned Edwards, and Patricia Knight

century were chance seedlings chosen for unique color or growth habit ( Egolf and Andrick, 1978 ). Today, commercial crapemyrtle production in the United States is primarily by means of asexual propagation of named clones ( Byers, 1997 ). Many clones are

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, James S. Owen Jr., and Andy Hoegh

identify an early predictor of winter foliage color (resistance to leaf browning) in japanese-cedar as a screening tool for identifying superior selections. Specifically, we assessed if quantitating pigments such as total chlorophyll ( C a + b ), ratio of

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Christina H. Hagerty, Alfonso Cuesta-Marcos, Perry Cregan, Qijian Song, Phil McClean, and James R. Myers

-Ts- expresses incomplete string, and ststTs- and ststtsts have complete string. With the exception of St , none of these traits have been placed on a linkage map or have been characterized using modern molecular tools. Seed color is an important trait in

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C.E. Johnson, J.T. Payne, and K.C. Pee

Controlled crosses of a Vermillion red flesh color cultivar with 4 normal red flesh color cultivars were made. F1, F2, and backcross generations were grown in the field and the fruits evaluated for flesh color. All fruits of the F1 generation were Vermillion. The F2 generation segregated to a 9:7 ratio of vermillion to normal in all crosses. The probabilities of fit ranged from 0.10 to 0.95. This ratio is indicative of two dominant genes with complementary effects or double recessive epistasis, Backcrosses to the dominant parent produced almost all vermillion flesh fruit. Backcrosses to the recessive parents did not fit any documented ratios. Further analysis of the BC generations seems to suggest that flesh color is controlled by two dominant genes.

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C.E. Johnson, J.T. Payne, and K.C. Pee

Controlled crosses of a Vermillion red flesh color cultivar with 4 normal red flesh color cultivars were made. F1, F2, and backcross generations were grown in the field and the fruits evaluated for flesh color. All fruits of the F1 generation were Vermillion. The F2 generation segregated to a 9:7 ratio of vermillion to normal in all crosses. The probabilities of fit ranged from 0.10 to 0.95. This ratio is indicative of two dominant genes with complementary effects or double recessive epistasis, Backcrosses to the dominant parent produced almost all vermillion flesh fruit. Backcrosses to the recessive parents did not fit any documented ratios. Further analysis of the BC generations seems to suggest that flesh color is controlled by two dominant genes.

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Brian Makeredza, Helen Marais, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze, and Willem J. Steyn

). Masking of sunburn by anthocyanin in blushed and red cultivars may result in the misconception of cultivar susceptibility to sunburn. As anthocyanins mostly accumulate in the epidermal and hypodermal tissue of apple peel ( Gross, 1987 ), red color

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and Maxine M. Thompson

The style color of standard hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars ranges from pink to dark purple. Styles with an unusual yellow color were first noted in seedlings of the progeny `Goodpasture' × `Compton', and the ratio was ≈3 red: 1 yellow. Controlled crosses were made to investigate the genetic control of style color. The same 3:1 ratio was observed in four additional crosses in which both parents had red styles. Two crosses of a red and a yellow parent gave ≈50% yellow styles, while a cross of two selections with yellow styles gave only seedlings with yellow styles. These segregation ratios indicate control by a single locus, with yellow style color recessive to red. Seedlings with yellow styles have green buds and catkins and a more upright growth habit than their siblings with red styles. Inspection of the pedigrees of these progenies shows that `Daviana', `Willamette', `Butler', `Compton', `Goodpasture', and `Lansing #1' are heterozygous. `Daviana' appears to be the original source of the allele for yellow styles, as it is a known or suspected parent or ancestor of the others. Ratios in a progeny segregating simultaneously for growth habit (normal vs. contorted) and style color indicated independence of the traits. However, in a progeny segregating simultaneously for leaf color (red vs. green) and style color, no redleaf seedlings had yellow styles. The S-alleles of eight genotypes with yellow styles were determined, and indicate a possible linkage between the yellow style locus and the S locus that controls pollen-stigma incompatibility. One explanation is that the yellow style trait is conferred by an allele (a ys) at the anthocyanin (A) locus that controls leaf color. A second explanation is that there is a yellow style locus closely linked to the A locus. The A locus is known to be loosely linked to the S locus.

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Jeffery K. Iles

M aples F or G ardens , A C olor E ncyclopedia . C.J. van Gelderen and D.M. van Gelderen. 1999. Timber Press, Inc., 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527. 294 p. 683 color photos. 2 color maps. $49.95, hardcover

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Walter Boswell, Bernard Bible, and Suman Singha

Flesh color has been proposed as a maturity index for peaches. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of this parameter in `Loring', `Jersey Dawn', `Madison', and `Raritan Rose' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). Fruit were picked at weekly intervals at three or four harvest dates, with five fruit per cultivar being picked from each of three trees. Flesh firmness and soluble solids were measured immediately following harvest, and CIELAB coordinates (L*a*b*) of blush and flesh color were determined with a Minolta CR-200b calorimeter. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) between firmness and flesh hue angle for all four cultivars and with flesh chroma especially for the white-fleshed `Raritan Rose'. The correlation values between firmness and blush hue angle were consistently lower. Soluble solids did not consistently correlate with flesh or blush color. Even though blush color influences consumer preference, it was not as good an indicator of maturity as flesh color for the cultivars that we tested.

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Mengyang Liu, Yin Lu, Shan Wang, Fang Wu, Jingrui Li, Yanhua Wang, Jianjun Zhao, and Shuxing Shen

Leaf color is largely the result of photosynthetic pigments, primarily chlorophyll (Chl). Chl plays an essential role in light absorption for energy transfer ( Stern et al., 2004 ). The Chl biosynthesis pathway is complex and involves more than 20