) ( Bukovac et al., 1969 ; Burns, 2002 ; Martin et al., 1981 ). However, excessive leaf abscission occurs at concentrations required for effective fruit loosening in citrus ( Burns, 2002 ) and olive ( Burns et al., 2008 ). Pozo et al. (2004) used 1-MCP, an
Karthik-Joseph John-Karuppiah and Jacqueline K. Burns
Steven McArtney, Michael Parker, John Obermiller, and Tom Hoyt
respiration, softening of the flesh, and production of volatile aroma compounds, are triggered by the autocatalytic rise in ethylene production ( Schaffer et al., 2007 ). The ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP (SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) has been
Susan Lurie, Amnon Lers, Zohar Shacham, Lilian Sonego, Shaul Burd, and Bruce Whitaker
Untreated control, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-treated, and heated fruit of the superficial scald-susceptible `Granny Smith' cultivar of apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were compared with respect to scald incidence, internal ethylene concentration (IEC), α-farnesene metabolism, expression of the genes AFS1, which encodes α-farnesene synthase, the final, rate-limiting enzyme in the α-farnesene biosynthetic pathway, and HMG2 and HMG3, which encode isozymes of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the proposed rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis. The incidence of scald in untreated `Granny Smith' apples after 16 weeks at 0 °C plus 1 week at 20 °C was 100%; 1-MCP treatment prevented scald development, whereas heat treatment delayed and reduced scald development. 1-MCP also inhibited both α-farnesene and IEC, suggesting that ethylene induces transcription of key genes involved in α-farnesene biosynthesis. Heat treatment reduced levels of α-farnesene and and its oxidation products, conjugated trienols (CTols), but not to the extent of 1-MCP. Internal ethylene concentrations in heated apples did not differ from those in the controls. In both control and heated fruit, a sharp increase in AFS1 mRNA during the first 4 weeks of storage preceded an increase in α-farnesene and a subsequent increase in CTols. AFS1 transcript was absent from 1-MCP-treated apples for the first 10 weeks of storage, and even at 16 weeks was lower than in heated and untreated control fruit. Levels of the HMG2 and HMG3 transcripts varied during storage and among treatments, and were not correlated with the incidence of scald. HMG2 mRNA transcript accumulation was low at harvest and increased in abundance during storage in all treatments, with the greatest increase occurring in 1-MCP-treated fruit. In contrast, HMG3 transcript was constitutively present at all storage times, although it too was slightly more abundant in 1-MCP-treated fruit.
Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry
below 2 kPa, and preferably nearer to 1 kPa ( Watkins and Liu, 2010 ), and delaying CA in combination with 1-MCP to retard fruit softening ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2012a ; Watkins and Nock, 2012b ). CO 2 injury, expressed as internal browning, is
Luiz C. Argenta, Sérgio T. de Freitas, James P. Mattheis, Marcelo J. Vieira, and Claudio Ogoshi
(1-MCP) may not be efficient to prevent fungal decay as these technologies have no direct effect on fungi that cause decay (Adaskaveg et al., 2002; Sugar, 2002 ; Watkins, 2008 ). 1-MCP inhibits apple fruit ripening by competing with ethylene in
Rosa Vilaplana, M. Carme Valentines, Peter Toivonen, and Christian Larrigaudière
In order to determine the effects that 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) may have on antioxidant metabolism during cold storage, apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh. cv. Golden Smoothee) were treated with 625 nL·L−1 1-MCP immediately after harvest and stored in air for 3 months. Differences in total antioxidant activity and ascorbate levels were determined during storage and related to the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase [SOD (EC 126.96.36.199)], catalase [CAT (EC 188.8.131.52)], and peroxidase [POX (EC 184.108.40.206)] in pulp. The level of oxidative stress in the pulp tissue was also established by determining changes in levels of hydrogen peroxide and in the content of peroxidative markers during storage. Controls and 1-MCP-treated fruit exhibited similar changes in total antioxidant activity and ascorbate levels. However, significant differences in oxidative stress levels were found between treated and untreated fruit. 1-MCP-treated fruit exhibited lower levels of hydrogen peroxide and significantly lower levels in peroxidative markers, especially at the end of the storage period. In line with this last result, 1-MCP-treated fruit also exhibited greater enzymatic antioxidant potential and, more specifically, a higher level of POX activity. Collectively, these results showed that 1-MCP did not detrimentally affect the antioxidant potential of the fruit and provided evidence to support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of 1-MCP on ripening are not exclusively limited to its effect on ethylene, but also include direct effects on peroxidation and POX enzyme activity.
Nazir Mir, Mauricio Canoles, Randolph Beaudry, Elizabeth Baldwin, and Chhatar Pal Mehla
The capacity for 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to inhibit color change and firmness loss and alter aroma profiles for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit was evaluated as a function of 1-MCP concentration, multiple and continuous applications, and stage of ripeness. In addition, the relationship between external and internal fruit color and firmness was determined. 1-MCP reduced the rate of red color development in fruit of all stages of ripeness. A single application of 1-MCP delayed color development by ≈ days. A second application of 1-MCP 10 days after first treatment additionally delayed color development of mature green fruit by another 8 to 10 days. Continuous 1-MCP application completely inhibited color development of breaker and half-ripe fruit for the duration (34 days) of application, but only partially inhibited firmness loss. When fruit at 50% color development were treated with 1-MCP, gel color development tended to lag behind the external fruit color change compared to nontreated fruit. Some aroma volatiles were affected by 1-MCP applied at the mature green and breaker stages, but the effect was relatively minor; 1-MCP did not affect sugar or titratable acid levels in these fruit. Collectively, the data indicate 1-MCP caused minor shifts in the quality attributes of locule color, aroma, and firmness relative to external color, which may reduce the value of this treatment, but benefits accrued by slowed firmness loss and color development may afford sufficient compensation to make 1-MCP application commercially feasible.
Muharrem Ergun, Jiwon Jeong, Donald J. Huber, and Daniel J. Cantliffe
`Galia' (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus L. Naud. `Galia') melons exhibit relatively short postharvest longevity, limited in large part by the rapid softening of this high quality melon. The present study was performed to characterize the physiological responses of `Galia' fruit harvested at green (preripe) and yellow (advanced ripening) stages and treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before storage at 20 °C. Treatment with 1.5 μL·L-1 1-MCP before storage delayed the climacteric peaks of respiration and ethylene production of green fruit by 11 and 6 d, respectively, and also significantly suppressed respiration and ethylene production maxima. Softening of both green and yellow fruit was significantly delayed by 1-MCP. During the first 5 d at 20 °C, the firmness of green control fruit declined 66% while 1-MCP-treated fruit declined 46%. By day 11, firmness of control and 1-MCP-treated green fruit had declined about 90% and 75%, respectively. The firmness of control yellow fruit stored at 20 °C declined 70% within 5 d while 1-MCP-treated fruit declined 30%. The 1-MCP-induced firmness retention was accompanied by significant suppression of electrolyte leakage of mesocarp tissue, providing evidence that membrane dysfunction might contribute to softening of `Galia' melons. The mesocarp of fruit harvested green and treated with 1-MCP eventually ripened to acceptable quality; however, under the treatment conditions (1.5 μL·L-1 1-MCP, 24 h) used in this study, irreversible suppression of surface color development was noted. The disparity in ripening recovery between mesocarp versus epidermal tissue was considerably less evident for fruit harvested and treated with 1-MCP at an advanced stage of development. The commercial use of 1-MCP with `Galia'-type melons should prove of immense benefit in long-term storage and/or export situations, and allow for retention of quality and handling tolerance for fruit harvested at more advanced stages of ripening.
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Kevin L. Goodner, James P. Mattheis, and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (`Gala', `Delicious', `Granny Smith' and `Fuji')], pretreated or nontreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 0.6 to 1.0 μL·L–1 for 18 hours at 20 °C), were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA, 1 to 1.5 kPa O2; 1 to 2 kPa CO2) or in regular atmosphere (RA) for up to 8 months at 1 °C. Firmness, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids content (SSC), and volatile abundance were analyzed every month directly or after transfer to air at 20 °C for 1 week to determine effect of 1-MCP, storage atmosphere and storage time on apple quality immediately after cold storage and after simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C. The 1-MCP ± CA treatments delayed ripening and prolonged storage life as indicated by delayed loss of firmness and TA in all four cultivars during storage. The 1-MCP ± CA also slightly delayed loss of SSC for `Gala' but had no effect on SSC levels for the other cultivars. There were differences among treatments for firmness and TA content [(1-MCP + RA) > CA] for `Gala', `Delicious', and `Granny Smith' apples, but not for `Fuji'. These differences were generally exacerbated after transfer of fruit to 20 °C for 1 week. A combination of 1-MCP + CA was generally best [(1-MCP + CA) > (1-MCP + RA) or CA] for maintaining `Delicious' firmness and TA. However, the treatments that were most effective at retaining TA and firmness also retained the least volatiles. The results indicate that the efficacy of 1-MCP and CA in maintaining apple quality factors is cultivar dependent and that 1-MCP + RA may be a viable alternative to CA for optimal eating quality for some cultivars.
Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock
The effects of temperature during 1-MCP treatment, and the effects of delays of up to 8 d after harvest before treatment, have been investigated using `Cortland', `Delicious', `Jonagold', and `Empire' (normal and late harvest) apple [(Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivars stored in air for 2 and 4 months and in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 4 and 8 months. Fruit were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-MCP for 24 hours on the day of harvest (warm) or after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 days at cold storage temperatures. CA storage was established by day 10. Little effect of temperature during treatment (warm fruit on the day of harvest compared with cold fruit after 24 hours of cooling) was detected. Major interactions among cultivars, handling protocols before 1-MCP treatment, storage type and length of storage were observed. Delays of up to 8 days before 1-MCP treatment either did not affect efficacy of treatment, or markedly reduced it, depending on cultivar, storage type and length of storage. The results indicate that, depending on cultivar, the importance of minimizing the treatment delay increases as storage periods increase.