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Bret Sparks, Gregg Munshaw, David Williams, Michael Barrett, Jeffrey Beasley, and Paul Woosley

turfgrasses solely for aesthetics, healthy turfgrass offers multiple benefits to the environment including carbon sequestration ( Bandaranayake et al., 2003 ), temperature reductions in urban heat islands ( Spronken-Smith et al., 2000 ), and enhanced water

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Edward J. Nangle, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, Dominic P. Petrella, Tom K. Danneberger, Luis Rodriguez-Saona, and John L. Cisar

Light plays a crucial role in turfgrass growth and development and is considered most important in wavelengths of 400–700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) ( Pons et al., 1993 ). Light wavelengths and spectral distribution vary with

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Sangwook Han, Thomas W. Fermanian, John A Juvik, and Louis A. Spomer

Contribution from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station. This study was partially supported by the Illinois Turfgrass Foundation.

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Nisa Leksungnoen, Paul G. Johnson, and Roger K. Kjelgren

., 2000 ). Hot, dry summers are characteristic of the IMW, where urban turfgrass requires irrigation to survive and thereby driving demand for water. However, the IMW has very limited water supplies; thus, water conservation in irrigated urban landscapes

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John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges, and Charles R. Hall

If a consumer survey of the general public were conducted today on the U.S. turfgrass industry, most people would likely know little about it. One could go even further by stating that many researchers and specialists in Land Grant Universities

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Charles F. Mancino

Arizona's golf and sod industry generates $280 M year-1 in revenue and surpasses the vegetable, cotton and dairy industries. Despite the economic worth of turf, a need still exists to conserve the limited supply of potable water in this harsh Sonoran Desert environment. Mandatory water conservation programs have been developed for many sectors of the Arizona economy. To meet this challenge, the turfgrass industry and government bodies have begun to contribute to the development of research programs which reduce turfgrass water requirements and dependence upon potable water. Current research includes a) determining the minimum water requirements of higher quality turf under conditions of high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits; b) the turfgrass potential of grasses with lower water requirements than bermudagrass; c) the development of a statewide weather station network to predict daily turfgrass water use; and d) determine management strategies for turfgrass irrigated with wastewater effluent. The overall goal of these programs is to produce high quality and functional turf with 20 to 50 percent less water.

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Baoxin Chang, Benjamin Wherley, Jacqueline Aitkenhead-Peterson, Nadezda Ojeda, Charles Fontanier, and Philip Dwyer

How to manage nutrients and irrigation have been major concerns for the turfgrass and ornamental industry in recent decades, especially within densely populated urban areas ( Beard and Green, 1994 ; Carey et al., 2012 ; Hochmuth et al., 2012 ). It

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Cécile Bertin, Andy F. Senesac, Frank S. Rossi, Antonio DiTommaso, and Leslie A. Weston

and subarctic climates ( Turgeon, 1999 ). Extensively used for forage, turf, or conservation purposes, fescue species vary greatly in morphology, cytology, and growth habits. Fine-leaf fescue is a common turfgrass in northeastern U.S. lawns and turf

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Gerald M. Henry, Michael G. Burton, and Fred H. Yelverton

exists on the spatial dynamics of perennial turfgrass weeds. McElroy et al. (2005) correlated the presence of green kyllinga ( Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.) and false-green kyllinga ( Kyllinga gracillima L.) on golf course fairways with increasing

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Clinton J. Steketee, Alfredo D. Martinez-Espinoza, Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Gerald M. Henry, and Paul L. Raymer

Seashore paspalum ( P. vaginatum ) is a warm-season, perennial turfgrass ( Morton, 1973 ) that is used primarily as a fine-bladed turfgrass in recreational areas. This littoral, C 4 species is typically found in tropical to warm temperate regions