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Xiaoyan Dai, Donald M. Vietor, Frank M. Hons, Tony L. Provin, Richard H. White, Thomas W. Boutton, and Clyde L. Munster

water retention compared with soil without CMB during production and after transplanting of sod ( Boyle et al., 1989 ; Johnson et al., 2006 ). Organic C applied as CMB or CMB-amended sod could contribute to greater short- and long-term C storage in

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W. Carroll Johnson III, David B. Langston Jr., Daniel D. MacLean, F. Hunt Sanders Jr., Reid L. Torrance, and Jerry W. Davis

.L. Torrance, unpublished data). The two most costly inputs into organic Vidalia ® sweet onion production are cost of transplants ($1801/acre) and weed control ($1502/acre), with weed control costs largely because of handweeding. In addition to being costly

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Vincent M. Russo

develop after being established in the field. In some, but not all, onion planting areas ( Boyhan et al., 2001a ), seedlings are established in the field with a mechanical transplanter. If this is the case, the planting material must be compatible with the

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Michael W. Smith, William D. Goff, and M. Lenny Wells

regarding performance of transplanted trees into an existing orchard. Concerns include transfer of crown gall from stumps of removed trees or remaining old trees and negative impacts of stumps or remaining trees on growth of transplanted trees. Because

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Edward F. Durner, E. Barclay Poling, and John L. Maas

Plugs are rapidly replacing fresh-dug bare-root and cold-stored frigo plants as transplants for strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) production worldwide. Plugs have many advantages over these other types of propagules. They are grown in controlled environments (greenhouses, tunnels) in less time than field produced bare-root transplants, and are not exposed to soilborne pathogens. Plugs afford greater grower control of transplanting dates, provide mechanical transplanting opportunities and allow improved water management for transplant establishment relative to fresh bare-root plants. New uses for plugs have been identified in recent years; for example, photoperiod and temperature conditioned plugs flower and fruit earlier than traditional transplants and plugs have been used for programmed greenhouse production. Tray plants have superior cold storage characteristics relative to bare-root, waiting-bed transplants. Both fresh and frozen plugs are used in a number of indoor and outdoor growing conditions and cultural systems.

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James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, Kenneth G. McCabe, and William R. Graves

.O. Plastics, Inc., Clearwater, MN) to ≈5 cm height, transplanted into soy-plastic containers and petroleum-plastic control containers filled with Sunshine ® LC-1 soilless substrate (SunGro Horticulture, Bellevue, WA), and grown in a glass-glazed greenhouse

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Shinsuke Agehara

Transplanting results in transplant shock in seedlings, limiting stand establishment and productivity of many vegetable crops ( Agehara and Leskovar, 2012 ; Vavrina, 2002 ). Transplant shock is caused by various types of abiotic stress occurring

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Thierry E. Besançon, Baylee L. Carr, and Albert Ayeni

information is needed to develop weed control packages for optimum weed management of the crop to maximize tuber yield and quality. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different preemergence (PRE) herbicides applied at transplanting of two

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J. Roger Harris, Alex Niemiera, Jody Fanelli, and Robert Wright

Two experiments tested the effects of root pruning on growth during first-season production of pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.). Experiment one tested the effect of root pruning developing radicles at 5, 10, or 15 cm (2, 4, or 6 inches) below the substrate surface. After 11 weeks, total root length was not affected by root pruning, but root-pruned seedlings had more main lateral [>2-mm (0.08-inch) diameter] roots than those that were not root pruned. Shallow pruning increased the number of main lateral roots. Experiment two tested the effect of initially producing plants in different-depth bottomless containers [5, 10, 15, or 20-cm (2, 4, 6, or 8-inch) depth] on growth after transplanting to #2 [6 L (1.6 gal)] containers. Shoot and root growth in #2 containers were lowest when plants were originally produced in 5-cm-deep containers. Plants with the greatest height and highest root:shoot ratios were obtained when plants were grown initially in 10-cm-deep containers. Predicted optimum depth of bottomless containers from regression equations ranged from 11.3 cm (4.5 inches) to 14.2 cm (5.5 inches) for the different growth parameters measured. The importance of these findings are: Pruning developing radicles of pin oak seedlings increases the number of main lateral roots but not overall root length. Growers can maximize growth in #2 containers by initially growing in 10-cm-deep bottomless containers before transplanting to #2 containers.

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Gregory E. Welbaum, Jonathan M. Frantz, Malkanthi K. Gunatilaka, and Zhengxing Shen

in part by Southern States Cooperative, Richmond, Va. We thank Arthur Pfister for help with field plot preparation and transplanting. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by