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Ali Reza Talaei and Ali Imani

In order to select the best pollinizer for late-flowering varieties of Azar (A.H.50), Shokoufeh (AH.3) Sahand (L-62), and Feragues, a range of studies were carried out at Azar-Shahr Horticultural Research Station (Tabriz, Iran) and actions undertaken for introduction of the best pollinizers for these varieties under both laboratory and orchard conditions by a Dactroil Statistical Plan with a completely random base plan. Seven types of pollens from Shokoufes (AH.3), Azar (A.H.50), Sahand (L-62), Ferragnos (Fer), Neplus Ultra (N.P.U.), None Paril (N.P.), and Harir (A.H.25) were selected and the pollen prepared. Pollen was collected from the experimental grounds. Hand-pollination was repeated in three stages for 3 days. Honeybees and other insects were controlled before and after artificial pollination to not interfere with the experiment. Percent fruiting was recorded twice 1 month after pollination (1 June) and again 1 July and analyzed statistically. Average fruiting for female flowers (pollen receivers) was from 0% to 47%. Thus, all varieties could not produce fruit (control). Average fruiting from other pollens with different ratios were significant from 1% to 5%. The almond varieties Azar, Shokoufeh, Sahand, and Ferragnos are self-incompatible and there is no need to emasculate pollen in pollination programs. However, Azar and Harir are incompatible with each other. Pollination efficiency of late-flowering almond varieties depends on the pollinizers and the compatibility with the cultivars, provided that pollination is carried out only by insects, particularly honeybees. The effect of wind on pollination in our almond orchards appeared to be insignificant.

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J. Mitchell McGrath and Carlos F. Quiros

Morphology and fertility were characterized for 22 intersubspecies hybrids within B. campestris L. Nine subspecies, representing crop types from different geographical areas, were used as pollen donors on three different seed parents. Stability of scored morphological characters was divided into four classes based on their appearance in F1 hybrids; i) constant (present in all hybrids when the character was present in one of the parents, e.g., enlarged hypocotyl, divided leaf), ii) variable (present in some hybrids when the character was present in parent types, e.g., petiole color, pubescence), iii) novel (appearing in hybrids but not present in parents, e.g., anther tip spot, self-compatibility), and iv) reciprocal differences. Constant characters are assumed to have a strong genetic component, variable characters may result from heterozygosity in parents, an allelic series, or polygenic inheritance, and novel characters may arise through mutation or altered gene or physiological interactions. Reciprocal crosses revealed morphological components controlled by the maternal parent, and were most striking in pak-choi (ssp. chinensis) by turnip [ssp. rapifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.] hybrids. Pollen and seed fertility of hybrids was generally reduced when Indian oilseeds [ssp. dichomata (Roxb.) Olsson; ssp. trilecularis (Roxb.) Olsson] were used as parents. Inheritance of the enlarged hypocotyl character was tested in one F2 population. Segregation of the enlarged hypocotyl trait was consistent with a hypothesis of a dominant Mendelian locus. Various novel characters appeared in this F2 population that were not evident in the parents of the hybrid, some of which also showed Mendelian segregation. Genetic differentiation of nuclear or plastid genomes may account for these observations.

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Javier Sanzol and Maria Herrero

an economic crop without the provision of pollinizers. In a previous study analyzing self and cross-(in) compatibility relationships in a group of pear cultivars through the evaluation of pollen tube behavior in controlled pollinations ( Sanzol, 2001

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Thomas Gradziel, Bruce Lampinen, Franz Niederholzer, and Mario Viveros

source of self-compatibility and disease resistance. Selection SB13,36-52 was selected for regional testing as an early bloom pollenizer for ‘Nonpareil’ based on its desirable early flowering and high kernel quality with an average kernel lipid content of

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Francisco Vargas, Miguel Romero, Joan Clavé, Jaume Vergés, Josef Santos, and Ignasi Batlle

of the Mediterranean Basin, cultivars have to be adapted to avoid late spring frost by late flowering. In California, delayed flowering can help to avoid rain damage at bloom time. A number of agronomic and commercial features (self-compatibility

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Thomas M. Gradziel, Bruce Lampinen, Joseph H. Connell, and Mario Viveros

well as one of the few California cultivars showing intermediate levels of self-compatibility ( Barckley et al., 2006 ). Self-incompatibility in almond is variable with most commercial cultivars setting less than 10% of self-pollinated flowers and so is

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Maria L. Badenes, Jose Martínez-Calvo, Helena Gómez, and Elena Zuriaga

, and self-compatibility, and are resistant to sharka Plum pox virus (PPV), a serious limiting factor for apricot fruit production in affected areas. Their fruits have excellent organoleptic characteristics and are notably larger than the traditional

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Sarah K. Taber and James W. Olmstead

compatibility with the pollen source used for cross-pollination ( Ehlenfeldt, 2001 ; Gupton, 1984 ; Lang and Danka, 1991 ; White and Clark, 1939 ). Greater fruit size and/or a shorter fruit development period with cross-pollination compared with self

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Rafael Socias i Company and A.J. Felipe

date, tolerance to frosts, and, mainly, self-compatibility. Since the beginning of almond research in Zaragoza in 1966, the most important problem detected in Spanish almond growing was its low productivity attributable to the occurrence of frosts at

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Jose Martínez-Calvo, Gerardo Llácer, and Maria Luisa Badenes

midripening sharka-resistant new cultivars with good fruit quality, self-compatibility, and larger fruit size than the local apricot cultivars grown in Valencia. ‘Goldrich’ was selected as the sharka-resistant female parent with large fruit size and better