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Seenivasan Natarajan* and Jeff S. Kuehny

The demand for new and/or improved herbaceous annuals and perennials continues to increase, making information on production and viability of these plants a necessity. In Louisiana and the Southern U.S., one of the greatest impediments to production of marketable herbaceous plants and their longevity is high temperature. Herbaceous plants have various stages of vegetative growth and flowering; high temperatures during these developmental stages can have a tremendous impact on plant metabolism, and thus plant growth and development. The goal of this research was to better understand the differences between heat tolerant (HT) and heat sensitive (HS) species and cultivars at various high temperatures in terms of whole plant growth, flowering, photosynthesis, carbohydrate content, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content and plant small heat shock proteins (HSP) expression levels. Salvia splendens Vista Series (HT), Sizzler series (HS); Viola witrokiana `Crystal Bowl Purple' (HT), `Majestic Giant Red Blotch' (HS), F1 Nature Series (HT) and F1 Iona Series (HS); Gaillardia × grandiflora `Goblin' (HT) and Coreopsis grandiflora `Early Sunrise' (HS) were grown from seed in growth chambers under 25/18 °C (day/night) cycles. Plants at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after germination were subjected to different high temperature treatments of 25 (control), 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C for 3 h. Results show that there was a significant difference in net photosynthesis, electrolyte leakage, soluble carbohydrate content and HSP levels between HT and HS cultivars. Effects of high temperature on plant growth, chlorophyll content, and number of days to flower, flower size, and marketable quality were also significantly different.

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J.C. Vlahos and M. Dragassaki

Ebenus cretica, Leguminosae, is a characteristic endemic plant of the Mediterranean island of Crete. It is a perennial bush up to 1 m tall with composite pubescent leaves and pinky red or purple flowers on 5- to 20-cm-long racemes. The fruit is surrounded by the calyx and contains one seed. The plants grow on rocky hillsides in alkaline soils at an altitude of up to 600 m and flower from April to June. Ebenus has the potential for use as a container or landscape flowering plant, and this study was aimed at finding methods to propagate it either by seed or by shoot cuttings. Seed collected from native plants in late July/Aug. 1992 germinated well (70% to 90%) without scarification in a commercial potting mix. Fifty percent of the seed germinated in vitro between 13 and 25 days, depending on temperature and substrate used. Temperatures of 25 or 30C in light at a pH ≈6.0 favored germination. Removal of the dry calyx coating the seed enhanced germination and emergence. For rooting Ebenus cuttings, several concentrations of IAA, IBA, and NAA were used in combination with different types of cuttings (soft or hardwood, tip or basal, cultivated or wild). Best results were obtained by wounding the base and dipping shoot-tip cuttings (12 cm long) in 600 mg IBA/liter for 16 hours. Significant differences, however, were observed among germination and rooting percentages when seeds or cuttings were taken from different plants due to genetic diversity. Therefore, selection is required for optimal results.

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Rosanna Freyre, Zhanao Deng, and Victor A. Zayas

plant height, good performance and flowering, and no fruiting. R13-5-3 has purple flowers, R16-1-1 has red-purple flowers, and R15-24-17 has a new flower color for Ruellia , which is white corolla with red-purple throat. Origin and Ploidy Levels The

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Dingmeng Hu, Jingwei Xu, Youji Han, Xingjian Dun, Lihui Wang, and Shengxiang Zhu

), and are important ornamental trees in temperate zones because of their excellent floral displays (flower type, diameter, shape, and color), colorful fruit (shades of lime green, amber, gold, yellow, orange, red, and purple), wide range of growth habits

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Narathid Muakrong, Patcharin Tanya, and Peerasak Srinives

. The corolla are red–purple (RHS 57C) in both male and female flowers with 10 yellow (RHS 13B) anthers and red–purple (RHS 64D) filaments. KPS1 sets only a few fruits, being green (RHS 141C) when young and yellow (RHS 8A) when ripening; each fruit

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and David A. Knauft

-pollination, pollen was collected by tapping inflorescences over a petri dish and was then applied to receptive stigmas of emasculated flowers using brushes. After ripening, fruit were scored as purple, pink, or white ( Fig. 1 ), collected and counted, and then seed

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Cecil T. Pounders, Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, and Leopold M. Nyochembeng

measure 2 cm in diameter. The two larger petals on male flowers are 15 × 12 mm, whereas the larger two female petals are 9 × 10 mm. All flowers are red–purple N66B with splotched white N155C pigmentation often present in the central portion of petals

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Chengyan Yue and Bridget K. Behe

. For this analysis, we grouped the 12 flower colors into six categories based on a combination of color intensity and proximity on the color wheel and to simplify the analysis: BluePurple (blue and purple/violet), RedBronze (bronze/rust, orange, red

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Hao Jiang, Ting Zhou, Junjun Fan, Donglin Zhang, Long Zhang, Yanyan Sun, and Wangxiang Zhang

’ (red–purple doubles), and ‘Brandywine’ (pink doubles). During the past 20 years, only two double-flower crabapple cultivars, ‘Spring Bride’ ( Spongberg, 1996 ) and ‘Jarmin’ ( Jarmin, 2003 ), were released to the market in the United States. In China

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu, and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

, 1996 , 1998 ). Flower morphology, flower size, and flower color in Ruellia are varied. Flower color ranges from white, cream, yellow, lavender, purple, pink, magenta, and red ( Tripp, 2014 ). However, the range of flower colors in R. simplex is