Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 690 items for :

  • phytotoxicity x
  • All content x
Clear All
Full access

Robert C. Ebel, Byron Wallace, and Charles Elkins

Imidacloprid is a long-term systemic insecticide that is currently labeled under the trade name Marathon (imidacloprid, 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl-4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-1-H-imidazol-2-amine, 1% granular on fritted clay, Bayer Corp., Kansas City, Mo.) for ornamental crops grown in greenhouses. The company that markets Marathon is seeking to expand its label to greenhouse-grown vegetable crops, although the rates they plan to label have not yet been divulged. Marathon was applied to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. `Turbo') and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Rutgers') at 0, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and 1 tsp (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg a.i.) per 4.5-inch (550-mL) pot. Both species developed phytotoxicity symptoms of leaf chlorosis of the oldest leaves and distorted growth and marginal necrosis of newer leaves within 1 week after application. By the end of the experiment, even the lowest rate caused phytotoxicity symptoms. The symptoms were similar in appearance to Ca deficiency but cucumber foliar analysis revealed no difference in Ca, Zn, Fe, or Co across imidacloprid rates, however, Mg and B decreased whereas K and Mn increased linearly across imidacloprid rates. P, Cu, and Mo varied quadratically with 1/2 tsp (20 mg a.i.) per pot having the lowest P and Mo, and Cu increasing at the higher rates. These data indicate that imidacloprid can alter plant nutrition. The rates of imidacloprid applied here are not recommended for use on greenhouse-grown cucumber and tomato under similar growing conditions as in this study.

Free access

Russell W. Wallace*

Field research was conducted to evaluate pre-transplant (PRE) applications of sulfentrazone (0.20 or 0.41 kg·ha-1 a.i.) and flufenacet (0.045 kg·ha-1 a.i.), or early postemergence (EPOST) halosulfuron (0.027, 0.036 or 0.054 kg·ha-1 a.i.) on phytotoxicity and yield of field-grown chili (var. Sonora), jalapeño (var. Grande) and bell (var. Giant Belle) peppers (Capiscum annuum) in Texas. Crop injury recorded 15 days after sulfentrazone treatments (DAT) showed minor stunting at the low rate, but moderate stunting and temporary leaf malformation when applied at 0.41 kg·ha-1 a.i. Increased stunting occurred 37 DAT at both rates; however, new leaf growth was not affected. Flufenacet did not result in crop injury to any of the three types grown. Phytotoxicity from halosulfuron recorded 7 DAT gave significantly higher ratings for stunting/chlorosis for broadcast EPOST treatments when compared to EPOST-directed applications. Injury from halosulfuron was temporary and considered minor with all EPOST treatments by 22 DAT. Pepper yield data showed that EPOST halosulfuron treatments were statistically equivalent to the untreated controls for each of the three types, but there was a trend for lower yields with rates higher than 0.027 kg·ha-1 a.i. All peppers treated with flufenacet gave excellent yields. Sulfentrazone applied at the high rate gave the greatest yield losses in all three types, and this was significant in the jalapeños. The results indicate that all three herbicides have potential for use in commercial pepper production in Texas. However, more research is needed to evaluate these and other herbicides for improved crop safety in peppers.

Free access

Hiram G. Larew and James C. Locke

The repellency and toxicity of a petroleum-based proprietary horticultural oil, Sunspray 6E Plus, was tested against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vapor-ariorum (Westwood), on greenhouse-grown chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura cv. Iceberg]. A 2% (v/v) aqueous spray repelled adult whiteflies for at least 11 days after spraying and it was toxic to newly hatched and third stage larval whiteflies. No phytotoxicity was observed when four weekly sprays of 1%, 2%, and 4% oil were applied.

Free access

Ashok K. Alva

The aim of this study was to investigate soil pH and copper (Cu) interactions affecting Cu phytotoxicity to young citrus trees on different rootstocks. Hamlin oranges on either Carrizo citrange, sour orange, or rough lemon rootstocks were grown on Candler fine sand at varying soil pH (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5) without additional Cu or soil applied Cu (liquid form; 240 kg Cu/ha; nine pre- and five post-planting applications over a period of 43 months). Increasing soil pH increased tree height, canopy volume and trunk diameter of trees on all three rootstocks, regardless of Cu treatments. Tree growth response to an increase in soil pH was greater in Cu amended as compared to unamended treatments. Response to pH increase above 6.0 was marginal as compared to that for pH increase from 5.0 to 6.0. Leaf Cu concentrations showed negligible differences in response to Cu treatments; however, Cu concentrations in fibrous roots increased by 126 to 152% in Cu amended as compared to unamended treatments.

Full access

William T. Haller, Lyn A. Gettys, and Taizo Uchida

must consider potential phytotoxic effects on these plants if treated water is used to irrigate landscape species. Topramezone and bispyribac-sodium provide aquatic resource managers with alternate modes of action to control fluridone-resistant hydrilla

Free access

Susan S. Han and Jennifer Nobel

The study was conducted to determine if ethylene or ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, can be used to induce abscission of phylloclades of four cultivars of Easter cactus [Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri (Regel) Moran] to increase efficiency in vegetative propagation. Abscission occurred within 24 hours after commencement of the ethylene treatments. Phytotoxicity, as exhibited by water soaking, transparency, and darkening of the phylloclades, as well as percent abscission, increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon (0 to 10,000 μl·liter–1). Ethylene released from ethephon, not the acidity of the solution, was determined to be the cause of the phytotoxicity. In three out of the four cultivars, vegetative and root growth from propagated phylloclades was significantly restricted by treatments with ethephon. In comparison, vegetative growth from phylloclades treated with ethylene at 20 μl·liter–1 was the same as from those treated with air. Root growth of the ethylene-treated phylloclades was not studied. The acidity of the ethephon solutions likely affected the growing regions, resulting in a reduction in growth. The study shows that treatment with ethylene gas or the use of pH-adjusted ethephon solutions may be an alternative to the labor-intensive procedures associated with vegetative propagation of Easter cactus. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

Free access

J.L. Nus and M.A. Sandburg

Throughout the north-south climatic transition zone of the eastern United States, cool- and warm-season turfgrasses are used adjacently. A greenhouse study with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) was initiated to determine threshold concentrations of atrazine, an effective pre- and postemergence herbicide for warm-season turfgrasses, that would result in unacceptable levels of phytotoxicity to seedling and mature creeping bentgrass. Mature and 8-week-old seedling `Penncross' creeping bentgrass were given 6.5 mm of daily irrigation of untreated water or water containing atrazine at 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.64, 1.28, or 2.56 mg·liter-1. A model of quality ratings taken 20 days after the initiation of treatments indicated threshold concentrations resulting in unacceptable turf quality to be approximately 0.05 and 0.08 mg·liter-1 for seedling and mature bentgrass, respectively. Chemical name used: 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine).

Full access

Carl J. Della Torre III, William T. Haller, and Lyn A. Gettys

sourced from on-site ponds that may also be targeted for aquatic weed control, determining whether aquatic herbicides have phytotoxic effects on irrigated landscape plants such as st. augustinegrass is of interest. Previous greenhouse studies evaluating

Free access

J.L. Garcia-Hernandez, E. Troyo-Dieguez, H. Nolasco, H.G. Jones, and A. Ortega-Rubio

The phytotoxic effects on the physiology of chili (Capsicum annum L. cv. Ancho San Luis) caused by four different insecticides were evaluated. Three commercial mixes (methyl azinfos, methyl parathion CE720, and metamidophos 600 LM), and an active ingredient alone (methamidophos) were assayed; water was used as the control. The main goal was to evaluate the insecticide effects on chili using four different doses; the mean dose, recommended on the label of the product (R), a half one (1/2R), 1.5 times (1.5R) and twice the recommended dose (2R). Three frequencies of application were applied; once a week, twice a week, and once every other week, for 6 weeks from the beginning of flowering. Phytotoxicity was evaluated measuring the response of some physiological traits, Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CF), Leaf Temperature (LT), Transpiration (Tr), and Stomatal Resistance (SR). CF was measured by means of a portable chorophyll fluorscence meter; LT, Tr, and SR were measured using a LI-Cor Porometer. The doses and frequencies used are all common in commercial chili fields in Mexico. Results showed that phytotoxicity caused by insecticides can be an important damage factor to the plants, something that can cause reduction of yields. CF was shown to be the most sensitive variable to evaluate the phytotoxicity caused by insecticides. Fruit malformation was observed in all treatments. Chlorophyll content was reduced up to 25%, on average. The phosphorate insecticides affected the physiological parameters more drastically than the others. Results evidence the irreversible crop damage caused by excessive insecticide applications.

Free access

Renae E. Moran, Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams, Charles D. Pless, and John C. Cummins

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] oil was applied to apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] as a summer spray in six studies to determine if it controls European red mites [Panonychus ulmi (Koch.)], how it affects net CO2 assimilation (A), and if it causes phytotoxicity. Sprays of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% soybean oil {TNsoy1 formulation [soybean oil premixed with Latron B-1956 (LAT) spreader-sticker at 10 oil: 1 LAT (v/v)]} reduced mite populations by 94%. Sprays of 1% and 2% soybean oil reduced mite populations to three and four mites per leaf, respectively, compared to 25 per leaf on water-sprayed plants. Soybean oil concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% applied to whole trees reduced A for less than 7 days. Phytotoxicity did not occur when soybean oil was applied with an airblast sprayer at concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% or with a mist bottle at 2%. Phytotoxicity occurred when soybean oil was applied with a mist bottle at 4% and 6%, which left soybean oil leaf residues of 0.22 to 0.50 mg·cm-2. No phytotoxicity occurred with 4% SunSpray, which resulted in a mean leaf residue of only 0.13 mg·cm-2. Spraying 1% soybean oil tended to give better mite control than 1% SunSpray Ultra-Fine oil, but caused greater oil residues and a greater reduction in A.