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Shinsuke Agehara

transplant shock is critical to successful stand establishment of vegetable seedlings. Transplant shock is not simply physical damage in seedlings, but it is the consequence of adaptive stress responses regulated by multiple phytohormones to cope with dynamic

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Ed Stover, Youjian Lin, Xiaoe Yang, and Tripti Vashisth

Florida. HLB-affected trees suffer from callose plugged phloem, loss of root system, altered mineral nutrition, phytohormone imbalance, and disruption of carbohydrate translocation that leads to arrested plant and fruit growth, and decline in production

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John R. Stommel

., 2009 ). Early observations of parthenocarpy involved natural mutations affecting phytohormones. Auxin was first identified as capable of inducing parthenocarpic fruit development in citrus ( Citrus sinensis ) ( Gustafson, 1939 ). Gibberellic acid (GA

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Khalid M. Elhindi, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdul-Wasea Asrar, Eslam Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Sharaf El-Din, and Mohamed Ali

Chakrabarti, N. Mukherji, S. 2003 Effect of phytohormone pre-treatment on nitrogen metabolism in Vigna radiate under salt stress Biol. Plant. 46 63 66 Chauhan, J.S. Tomar, Y.K. Singh, N.I. Ali, S. Debarati, 2009 Effect of Hormones on seed germination and

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Aliza Vardi, Ilan Levin, and Nir Carmi

, 1997 ). This observation has led to the theory that signaling processes are required for the development of the fertilization products necessary for the initiation of seed and fruit development ( Raghavan, 2003 ). Various phytohormones, including

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Xiaohong Wang, Bishun Ye, Xiangpeng Kang, Ting Zhou, and Tongfei Lai

mutants, efficient gene editing approaches, and fully sequenced genome ( Kudo et al., 2017 ; Tomato Genome Consortium, 2012 ). Accumulating evidence indicates that the internal determinants of regulating tomato fruit ripening include phytohormone

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Ustun Sahin, Melek Ekinci, Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu, Ertan Yildirim, Metin Turan, Recep Kotan, and Selda Ors

action of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase ( Mayak et al., 2004 ); the synthesis of phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), and gibberellin (GA) ( Arkhipova et al., 2007 ; Forchetti et al., 2010 ; Turan et

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Kang-Di Hu, Xiao-Yue Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Jun Tang, Feng Yang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Jing-Yu Deng, Si-Yuan Liu, Shang-Jun Zhao, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao, and Hua Zhang

the texture of fruit and improve the market values. Ethylene is an important phytohormone in plants and is involved in many aspects of the plant life, including seed germination, root hair development, flower senescence, and fruit ripening ( Sisler and

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Takanori Takeuchi, Miwako Cecile Matsushita, Soichiro Nishiyama, Hisayo Yamane, Kiyoshi Banno, and Ryutaro Tao

transcription factors. Among them, PIF4 and MYC2 were known to be related to phytohormone metabolism, whereas AP2/ERF113 was involved in meristem activity. PIF4 regulates auxin biosynthesis at high temperature ( Franklin et al., 2011 ) and positively

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Menahem Edelstein and Haim Nerson

50%) and nonuniform ( Edelstein and Kigel, 1990 ). The ability to improve vegetable seed germination at suboptimal temperatures by infusion of phytohormones or plant growth regulators (PGRs) into the seeds was first reported by Wittwer and Bukovac