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Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie

( Bailey and French, 1942 ; Blake, 1931 ). As a reproductive organ, the peach flower serves to attract insects. Peach flowers generally open before leaf growth, so changes in floral characteristics are readily visible. Under natural open-pollination, the

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Irene E. Palmer, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, and Richard E. Bir

passed anthesis. Achenes were collected after flower senescence and sown. Triploid, F 1 interploid progeny were selected and subjected to open-pollination. Achenes from five inflorescences per clone were collected and sown. The reproductive pathway (i

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Xiyan Yu, Xiufeng Wang, Jide Fan, Hongmei Tian, and Chengchao Zheng

sidedress application of 150 kg·ha −1 N at flowering stage. Irrigation by furrows was applied as needed. Freshly opened female flowers were tagged on the day of hand-pollination to identify fruit of known age and one fruit per plant was allowed to develop

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Trenton Hamada, Irene Terry, Robert Roemer, and Thomas E. Marler

monogeneric family comprising ≈100 Cycas species ( Hall, 2011 ; Kono and Tobe, 2007 ). All cycad studies to date have shown that wind plays a minimal, if any, role as a pollen vector. A few questions remain concerning the pollination of some Cycas species

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Madhulika Sagaram, Leonardo Lombardini, and L.J. Grauke

-ARS-NCGR in Brownwood, TX. All seed was open-pollinated with the seed from Mexican natives being pollenized by other pecan trees growing at the CSM orchard. Seed from grafted pecan cultivars in the NCGR could have been pollenized by any of the diverse

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Rui Zhang, Fang-Ren Peng, Dong-Liang Le, Zhuang-Zhuang Liu, Hai-Yang He, You-Wang Liang, Peng-Peng Tan, Ming-Zhuo Hao, and Yong-Rong Li

.77° E). Open-pollinated seeds of the Chinese selection ‘Shaoxing’ were used as the seed stock to produce seedlings. ‘Shaoxing’ had a small nut of very good quality with ≈50% percentage fill. Seeds were averaged 30.38 mm in length, 20.93 mm in width, and

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Thomas L. Davenport, Petra Parnitzki, Sabine Fricke, and Melanie S. Hughes

Pollination was investigated in five avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cultivars during two seasons. In the first year, `Simmonds' and `Hardee' branches with inflorescences were covered with cheesecloth bags to prevent pollination by large flying insects during either or both the first (Stage I) and second (Stage II) floral openings. Adjacent, tagged branches were left open as controls. The proportion of pollinated Stage I flowers ranged from <1% in `Simmonds' to 9% in `Hardee.' Pollination rates in Stage II ranged from 15% in `Simmonds' to nearly 69% in `Hardee'. Pollination during Stage II was proportional to the number of white stigmas available during that stage. Stage II pollination rates for bagged flowers and open flowers were similar, even though large flying insects were barred from bagged flowers. In the second year, similar experiments on cultivars Simmonds, Tonnage, Tower 2, and Choquette provided results consistent with those obtained the previous year. Virtually no pollination occurred in bagged Stage I flowers in all cultivars tested, and ≈1% of the open Stage I flowers were pollinated. Pollination of bagged and open Stage II flowers was generally the same within cultivars. The percent pollination of Stage II flowers ranged from a mean of 4.3% to 35%, depending on cultivar. The results show that self-pollination during the Stage II floral opening is the primary means of pollination of commercial cultivars grown in Florida. Moreover, the presence of developing fruits on branches bagged during the flowering season demonstrated that fruit set can occur without pollination by large flying insects.

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Yun Kong, David Llewellyn, Katherine Schiestel, Martha Gay Scroggins, David Lubitz, Mary Ruth McDonald, Rene Van Acker, Ralph C. Martin, Youbin Zheng, and Evan Elford

appeared on the five nodes proximal to the leader vine. The side branches which bore female flowers were pinched off above the distal flower position. Hand pollination of the opened female flowers was carried out (daily) in all the plots using male flowers

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Paul Lyrene

Diploid blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) was pollinated in a greenhouse in 1981 with pollen from sparkleberry (V. arboreum, Section Batodendron). Cyanococcus parents included V. darrowi, diploid V. corymbosum, and various intra-sectional diploid hybrids. Forty one vigorous seedlings showing characteristics of both sections were selected from a field nursery when 2 ½ years old. Some of these plants flowered heavily in subsequent years, and several were more than 3 m tall by 1990. Although the F1 hybrids had very low fertility, some open-pollinated progeny were obtained. Some of these were vigorous, fruitful when open-pollinated in the field, and intermediate between V. arboreum and Cyanococcus in many features. Six of the best progeny from open-pollination of the F1's were used in greenhouse crosses. Some branches were self-pollinated and some were pollinated with pollen from tetraploid V. corymbosum -based cultivars. Two of the 3 selfed plants had a high percent fruit set (277 fruit from 441 flowers). Four of the six plants pollinated with pollen from tetraploid V. corymbosum cultivars had high percent fruit set (452 fruit from 793 flowers). Flowers of the open-pollinated progeny of the F1 hybrids were much larger than those of the F1 `s. This, along with the fruitfulness after 4× pollination, suggests that at least some of the open-pollinated progeny are tetraploid. These hybrids give hope that sparkleberry genes can be used to improve highbush cultivars.

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John McCallum, Susan Thomson, Meeghan Pither-Joyce, Fernand Kenel, Andrew Clarke, and Michael J. Havey

Plant materials. A set of 82 bulb onion populations was selected to represent the broadest possible range of germplasms relevant to modern genetics and breeding, including mapping population parents, inbred and open-pollinated (OP) populations widely