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Hatsuhiko Okada, Yoshitaka Ohashi, Mamoru Sato, Hideyuki Matsuno, Toshiya Yamamoto, Hoytaek Kim, Tatsuro Tukuni, and Sadao Komori

, the first approaches were conducted to produce doubled haploids in apple by in vitro anther culture ( Nakayama et al., 1972 ). Since then, various homozygous genotypes induction methods such as in vitro anther culture and in situ parthenogenesis in

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Jiyu Zhang, Min Wang, Zhenghai Mo, Gang Wang, and Zhongren Guo

organ types of the typical angiosperm flower. According to this model, sepal identity is specified by the A function alone, petal formation is controlled by A and B functions, stamen development is regulated by the combination of B and C functions, and

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Xuebin Song, Kang Gao, Guangxun Fan, Xiaogang Zhao, Zhilan Liu, and Silan Dai

as CTL and defined the ratio of CTL to RFL as CTMD ( Fig. 2 ). We included the use of CTMD as a morphological index to aid in defining petal type. In general, the ray floret shape of chrysanthemum is referred to as petal type and includes not only the

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Mohammad Majdi, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Mohammad A. Malboobi, Reza Omidbaigi, and Ghader Mirzaghaderi

( Colchicum autumnale ), for chromosome doubling has opened a large reservoir of possibilities in polyploidization ( Hassawi and Liang, 1991 ). Although increasing the levels of secondary metabolites as a result of polyploidy induction has been reported for

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Stefan B. Lura and Alan T. Whittemore

pointed tip, serrate edges, and with pubescence beneath; petiole length is 1 cm. Inflorescence length is 5 cm, bearing five to seven flowers per inflorescence. Flower form is semi-double, 3 cm in diameter, with oval petals having irregularly serrate edges

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Xuejuan Chen, Ming Sun, Jianguo Liang, Hui Xue, and Qixiang Zhang

yellow, orange–yellow, or aubergine double flowers. There were four additional subgroups of closely related cultivars that shared parents and petal type. Subgroup 1 comprised ‘XA7’, ‘Dan Dan De Huang’, and ‘Dan Han Fen’, all dwarf or compact offspring of

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Lulu Zhang, Yunfei Mao, Yunyun Wang, Lu Yang, Yijun Yin, Xiang Shen, Canhong Zhang, and Duojiao Zhang

‘Duojiao’. Flowers. Floral bud formation ability was strong in ‘Duojiao’, producing many axillary flower buds on long branches, with each umbel comprised of four to eight flowers. Flowers were pink (RHS-63B) at balloon stage, each with six to nine petals

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Claude Richer, Lynn M. Collicutt, Campbell G. Davidson, Larry Dyck, and Caroline Lafond

convex on the lower part. The petals are medium-sized, purple–red (60A), and have a spot at the base on the outer side (61C) and a large, purple–red spot at the base on the inner side (57A). The margin of the petals is slightly reflexed with slight to

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Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou Sakhanokho

lowest and widely accepted count. The Linnaean plant type had red double flowers and was believed to be native to China where it was cultivated for its showy flowers ( Kimbrough, 1997 ), although no wild forms of the species are known to exist there. An

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David H. Byrne and Natalie Anderson

pink petals with the non-showy petals being a darker pink and smaller than the showy petals. Pollen is yellow and abundant. The tree is self-fertile. The trees are vigorous with the typical semispreading growth habit similar to ‘TexKing’, ‘TexPrince