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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Glykeria Gogoula

included water retention curves, bulk density, pH, EC, and soil moisture (determined during the vertical detachment force measurements). Turfgrass visual quality ratings were assessed from Study A section in 2003 and 2004 on a scale of 1 to 9 (1 = dead, 9

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David C. Ferree

Container-grown apple trees on a range of rootstocks were exposed to different levels of soil compaction created by changing soil bulk density. In 1998, with soil bulk densities of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4, there was no interaction of rootstock and soil compaction for shoot growth of `Melrose' trees on 7 rootstocks. However, in 1999, with soil bulk densities of 1.0 and 1.5, a significant interaction on shoot growth did occur with six rootstocks. Shoot length of trees on M.9, M.7, and G.30 were less influenced than G.16, M.26 and MM.106. A bulk density of 1. 5 caused a decrease in dry weight of shoots, leaves, and roots of trees on all rootstocks. Compacted soil resulted in a decrease in leaf concentration of K and B and an increase in Mg and Mn.

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Shawna Loper, Amy L. Shober, Christine Wiese, Geoffrey C. Denny, Craig D. Stanley, and Edward F. Gilman

been shown to improve soil function by increasing water-holding capacity, porosity, and surface area ( Cogger, 2005 ; Zhang, 1994 ). Organic amendments can help to stabilize soil structure ( Thomas et al., 1996 ) and decrease soil bulk density ( D b

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George Gizas, Ioannis Tsirogiannis, Maria Bakea, Nikolaos Mantzos, and Dimitrios Savvas

bulk of the samples at each suction level, the time intervals between each step of suction increase were at least 5 d. After establishment of moisture equilibrium at each suction level, the samples were removed from the sandbox by means of a sharp slice

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Qiansheng Li, Jianjun Chen, Russell D. Caldwell, and Min Deng

. Components in volumetric percentage of Canadian peat- and Florida peat-based substrates substituted by cowpeat. z Determination of physical and chemical properties. The physical properties of the substrates, including bulk density, total porosity, air space

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

mean of the core. Bulk density was determined using oven-dried (60 °C) substrate in 347-cm 3 cores. Unavailable water, held in the substrate at 1.5 MPa or greater, was determined with 116-cm 3 cores (2.5 cm tall × 7.6 cm i.d.) using a porous ceramic

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Erik Lichtenberg, John Majsztrik, and Monica Saavoss

time from planting to sale was over one-third lower while crop losses were reduced by 50%. Annualized profit under the wireless sensor system was over 1.5 times more than under the nursery’s standard practice, with the bulk of the increase in profit due

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Efthimia Nydrioti

.v. (2008) specifications. Water potential curves of the substrates were determined according to Nektarios et al. (2011b) using a 100-cm column comprised of 20 rings, each 5 cm in height. Total porosity and dry and saturated bulk density of each substrate

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Takafumi Kinoshita and Masaharu Masuda

CRF application. These results indicate that plants absorb the bulk of nutrients immediately after release from the CRF surface, which translates into high nutrient utilization efficiency with respect to fruit production. Therefore, we investigated the

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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Dan M. Sullivan, Donald A. Horneck, and James Cassidy

, and 0.19 to 0.70 g·cm −3 bulk density (D b ) ( Yeager et al., 2000 ). Most of the available water in a pine bark substrate is held at tensions less than 2.5 kPa, whereas water held at tensions greater than 10 kPa is not readily available for plants