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Ann Marie Connor, James J. Luby, and Cindy B.S. Tong

Narrow-sense heritability and among-family and within-family variance components were estimated for antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPH), and anthocyanin content (ACY) in blueberry (Vaccinium L. sp.) fruit. AA, TPH, and ACY were determined in the parents and in 10 offspring from each of 20 random crosses for each of 2 years at Becker, Minn. Offspring-midparent regression analysis provided combined-year heritability estimates of 0.43 ± 0.09 (P ≤ 0.0001) for AA, 0.46 ± 0.11 (P ≤ 0.0001) for TPH, and 0.56 ± 0.10 (P ≤ 0.0001) for ACY. Analyses of variance delineated variation among and within families for AA, TPH, and ACY (P ≤ 0.001). Year-to-year variation in the means for all offspring genotypes was not significant for AA or TPH, but there were changes in rank between years for families and for offspring within families for these traits. Year-to-year variation in the mean for all offspring genotypes was significant for ACY, but rank changes were observed only among offspring within families, not among families. In total, 18 of 200 offspring from 7 of the 20 crosses were transgressive segregants for AA, exceeding the higher parent of the cross by at least two sds. Estimates of variance components showed that variation among families accounted for 24% to 27% of total variance for the three traits. However, variation within families was greater than that among families, accounting for 38% to 56% of total variance for the three traits. These results suggest that increasing antioxidant activity in blueberry through breeding is feasible, and that the breeding strategies utilized should exploit the large within-family variation that exists.

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D. Scott NeSmith and Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

In addition to breeding cultivars for commercial blueberry ( Vaccinium sp.) production, ornamental value has been a trait of interest for many blueberry breeders for a number of years ( Galletta and Ballington, 1996 ). An older dwarf cultivar

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Yifei Wang, Stephanie K. Fong, Ajay P. Singh, Nicholi Vorsa, and Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese

flavonoid and organic acid profiles of diploid blueberry species compared with cultivated tetraploids also suggests their potential value in blueberry breeding for phytochemical improvement. For instance, V. pallidum , V. tenellum, and V. boreale clones

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Steven A. Sargent, Adrian D. Berry, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and James W. Olmstead

fresh packed blueberries will be received by buyers with acceptable quality. NeSmith et al. (2002) reported that MH rabbiteye blueberry lost 20% to 30% firmness as compared with HH fruit. The University of Florida’s breeding program has produced

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Bruno Casamali, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

1160 Lyrene, P.M. 1997 Value of various taxa in breeding tetraploid blueberries in Florida Euphytica 94 15 22 Merhaut, D.J. 1993 Effects of nitrogen form on vegetative growth, and carbon/nitrogen assimilation, metabolism, and partitioning in blueberry

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Stephen J. Stringer, Arlen D. Draper, Donna A. Marshall, and James M. Spiers

Southern highbush blueberries ( Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum ) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that is both native and adapted to the southeastern United

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Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Theodore A. Mackey, Patrick A. Jones, Nahla V. Bassil, and Robert R. Martin

-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, and was released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Echo’ is the second strongly repeat fruiting (remontant, off-season, perpetual flowering) blueberry developed from a northern

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

‘Razz’ is a midseason-ripening, tetraploid, highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with unique raspberry flavor overtones that has been released by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department

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Blair J. Sampson, Stephen J. Stringer, and Donna A. Marshall

is linked to greater pollination efficiency, higher fruit sets, and larger berries ( Sampson and Cane, 2000 ). Perhaps the efficiencies of honeybees and other manageable bee species can be improved by selectively breeding blueberry cultivars with

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Ann Marie Connor, James J. Luby, Cindy B.S. Tong, Chad E. Finn, and James F. Hancock

Dietary antioxidants may have a role in preventing some of the chronic diseases in humans resulting from free radical oxidation of lipids and other cellular components. Blueberries (Vaccinium L. sp.) are considered one of the best fresh fruit sources of antioxidants, and there is the potential to increase the antioxidant activity further through breeding. Thus, the variability of fruit antioxidant activity (AA) was examined among a set of 16 highbush and interspecific hybrid cultivars grown at locations in Minnesota (MN), Michigan (MI), and Oregon (OR) over 2 years (1998 and 1999) to determine effects of genotype, year, and location. Nine cultivars were common to all three locations in both years. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPH), and total anthocyanin content (ACY), were determined in triplicate samples from each genotype. Cultivars differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in AA, TPH, and ACY both within and over locations. The single location mean AA for all cultivars changed significantly between the 2 years in OR and in MI, while the single location mean for TPH differed between the 2 years in MN and MI. Changes in cultivar rank were significant for AA, TPH, and ACY between years within each location. Significant changes in rank for TPH and ACY were also noted between pairs of locations as well. Pearson's correlation for AA (based on cultivar means) appeared highest between MN and OR (r = 0.90) and MN and MI (r = 0.69) in 1998; correlations between locations for the combined years were 0.74 for MN and OR, 0.55 for MN and MI and 0.45 for MI and OR. For the group of nine cultivars, AA correlated well with TPH within each location, with r ranging from 0.67 to 0.95 for data from individual and combined years. Correlation of AA with ACY at each location was lower than that for AA with TPH, in both individual and combined years. This study demonstrates significant genotype× environment interaction for AA in blueberry.