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Paul Vossen

tablets, olive pits, and wood fragments found in ancient tombs. Ancient documents in Syria indicate that around 2000 bce the value of olive oil was five times that of wine and two and a half times that of seed oils. The spread of the olive tree probably

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Bhaskar Bondada

, C.V.T. Steffens, A. Santos, A. Mitcham, E. 2014 Relationship between xylem functionality, calcium content and the incidence of bitter pit in apple fruit Sci. Hort. 165 319 323 Mullendore, D.L. Windt, C.W. As, H.V. Knoblauch, M. 2010 Sieve tube

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis, and Nikolaos Koutinas

storability during cold storage ( Thiault, 1971 ). Some years fruits showed the physiological disorder “bitter pit,” but this problem was resolved by calcium sprays ( Syrgianidis, 2004 ). The fruit maintains firmness, juiciness, and flavor very well in

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Andrés Mayorga-Gómez, Savithri U. Nambeesan, Timothy Coolong, and Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez

+ deficiency disorders such as bitter pit in apple and BER in peppers, tomatoes, and watermelons ( Gilliham et al., 2011 ; White and Broadley, 2003 ). Initiation of BER often occurs in the distal portion of the fruit as water-soaked spots that eventually

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Ana Morales-Sillero, Pilar Rallo, María Rocío Jiménez, Laura Casanova, and María Paz Suárez

, representing 42% of total consumption. Exportations represent 27% of total production with Spain as the main exporter followed by Argentina and Egypt ( International Olive Council, 2013 ). Large size, high pulp-to-pit ratio, low oil content, and adequate color

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A. Morales-Sillero, R. Jiménez, J.E. Fernández, A. Troncoso, and L. Rejano

the recognized nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet ( Patumi et al., 2002 ). The consumer and the processing industry request fruits with good size, proper shape, high pulp/stone ratio, good texture and color, and ease in releasing the pit

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James C. Fulton and Mark E. Uchanski

, 1973 , 1975 ), “bitter pit” ( Eijsinga et al., 1973 ), and “pepper spot” ( Stolk and Maaswinkel, 1977 ) are different names that have been used in the literature to describe what is likely the same physiological disorder of peppers. This disorder

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Yosef Al Shoffe, Abdul Sattar Shah, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins

than 3 °C ( Moran et al., 2010 ; Watkins et al., 2004 ). Conditioning has little effect on quality factors such as flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solids concentrations (SSC), although bitter pit incidence and skin greasiness may

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James Mattheis and David R. Rudell

risk at low pO 2 is unknown—as is how higher temp/longer duration conditioning would influence the low pO 2 impacts on fruit quality, particularly SSC, TA, and peel color. Longer conditioning duration can enhance lenticel breakdown, bitter pit

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koutinas, and Antonios Petridis

rootstock over a period of 3 years (from the fifth until the seventh year of the trees). During storage, fruits of ‘Achilles’, like its parent ‘Firiki’, do not show symptoms of the physiological disorder “bitter pit” or “external browning.” The only