A rapid increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) production (2 kg/person per day), combined with a decreasing number of operating landfills, has increased waste disposal costs. Composting MSW can be an alternative method of waste disposal to traditional landfilling or incineration. Weed control methods using waste materials such as bark, straw, and sawdust were used in commercial crop production for many years before the advent of chemical weed control. Weed growth suppression by mulching can often be almost as effective as conventional herbicides. A 10 to 15 cm-deep mulch layer is needed to completely discourage weed growth in these systems, and best results are obtained with composted materials. In recent years, composts made from a large variety of waste materials have become available on a commercial scale. Preliminary investigations into the use of MSW compost as a weed control agent have shown that compost, especially in an immature state, applied to row crop middles reduced weed growth due to its high concentration of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Subsequently, compost can be incorporated into the soil for the following growing season to potentially improve soil physical and chemical properties. Integrated pest management programs that incorporate biological control should be adopted wherever possible because some weed species with persistent seeds can escape chemical control.
Anthony Silvernail and Michael K. Bomford
Weed control is a major challenge confronting growers transitioning to organic vegetable production. Organic standards require that growers manage weeds without synthetic herbicides while maintaining or enhancing soil quality. In 2005, we evaluated the effects of two seedbed preparation methods and six weed management tactics, compatible with organic standards, on soil quality indicators, weed pressure, and yield of edamame soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Seedbed preparation was conducted with either a moldboard plow and roto-tiller or a spading machine. Weeds were managed by a) regular hand weeding, b) pre-emergent flaming, c) post-emergent incorporation of 100 g of corn gluten meal/m2, or weekly passes from crop emergence until row closure with d) a spring-tine weeder, e) a rolling cultivator, or f) a between-row flame weeder. Dominant weeds were smooth pigweed [Amaranthus hybridus (L.)], goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], and giant crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.]. Smooth pigweed dominated in the corn gluten meal and spring-tine weeder treatments; goosegrass and giant crabgrass dominated in the two flamed treatments. Weed pressure was lowest, and crop yield highest, in the hand-weeded control and rolling cultivator treatments. Relative to these, crop yield was severely depressed by weed pressure in other treatments. The labile carbon concentration and enzymatic activity of soils was tested midseason, and at harvest, showed no significant treatment effects. Results suggest that the rolling cultivator offered the best weed control among the tactics tested, without adversely affecting soil quality.
Bert T. Swanson and James B. Calkins
Fourteen herbicides or herbicide combinations, a wood chip mulch, a chipped rubber tire mulch, and a newspaper mulch were evaluated for weed control efficacy and potential phytotoxicity using 12 species of herbaceous perennials under field-growing conditions. Nineteen herbicides or herbicide combinations were similarly evaluated under container-growing conditions using 11 species of herbaceous perennials. The effect of herbicide application time also was monitored through application of herbicides to dormant and actively growing plants. Herbicides and mulch treatments were compared to weeded and nonweeded controls. Herbicide phytotoxicity effects were dependent on the age and species of the herbaceous perennial and herbicide application timing. Herbicide injury was generally greater for newly established plants compared to established plants. Although injury was usually reduced when herbicides were applied to dormant plants, injury was sometimes greater when herbicides were applied in early spring compared to applications made in late spring after complete herbaceous perennial emergence. This effect resulted in injury to young shoots that had emerged before the earliest possible time that herbicides could be applied in early spring. A wood chip mulch provided the most effective weed control and highest quality plants under field growing conditions. Several of the herbicides evaluated demonstrated potential for weed control in both field and container herbaceous perennial production systems and landscape plantings.
Jayesh B. Samtani, Husein A. Ajwa, Rachael E. Goodhue, Oleg Daugovish, Zahanghir Kabir, and Steven A. Fennimore
; Wilhelm, 1999 ). The weed control effectiveness of 1,3-D + Pic is better than that of Pic alone ( Fennimore et al., 2003 ), yet strawberry yields from the alternatives, 1,3-D + Pic and Pic have been comparable to MB treatments ( Medina et al., 2006
Charles L. Webber III, Angela R. Davis, James W. Shrefler, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Vincent M. Russo, and Jonathan V. Edelson
The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the impact of different weed control systems on yields of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) varieties grown organically. Six watermelon varieties were transplanted at two locations (Lane and Center Point, Okla.). The six varieties included three seeded varieties (`Early Moonbeam', `Sugar Baby', and `Allsweet') and three seedless varieties (`Triple Crown', `Triple Prize', and `Triple Star'). The weed control system at Lane utilized black plastic mulch on the crop row, while the area between rows was cultivated to control weeds. The no-till organic system at Center Point used a mowed rye and vetch cover crop, hand weeding, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) for weed control. When averaged across watermelon varieties, Lane produced significantly more fruit per plant (4.2 vs. 2.3 fruit/plant), greater marketable yields (16.0 vs. 8.4 kg/plants), and higher average marketable weight per fruit (6.1 vs. 4.0 kg) than at Center Point. When comparing locations, four of six varieties had significantly greater number of fruit per plant and higher marketable yields at Lane than at Center Point. Except for `Early Moonbeam', all other varieties produced significantly heavier fruit at Lane than at Center Point. In contrast, the Center Point location produced a greater percentage of marketable fruit for all varieties except `Allsweet'. Fruit quality (lycopene and °Brix) was as good or greater when harvested from the weedier Center Point location.
James E. Klett, Laurel Potts, and David Staats
During the 1998 season, preemergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II), 0.54 and 1.09 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Scabiosa caucasica, Sedum × `Autumn Joy', Pennisetum setaceum `Rubrum', Salvia argentea, Penstemon × mexicali `Red Rocks', Osteospermum barberiae v. compactum `Purple Mountain', and Gazania linearis `Colorado Gold'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects) were apparent with Napropamide on Phalaris (at both rates) but recovered by the end of season. All herbicides provided good weed control.
Brian A. Kahn, Raymond Joe Schatzer, and Wendy A. Nelson
The herbicides trifluralin, metolachlor, and paraquat were compared for efficacy of weed control in cowpea with and without cultivation as a supplemental strategy for two years. Herbicides also were compared against a no-herbicide control (with and without cultivation). Cultivation had no significant effect on seed yield, biological yield, or harvest index of cowpea. Paraquat, used in a “stale seedbed” system, was ineffective for weed control and did not change cowpea yield from that of the no-herbicide control. Trifluralin and metolachlor more then tripled cowpea seed yield compared to that of the no-herbicide control in 1988, when potential weed pressure was 886 g m-2 (dry wt.). Trifluralin and metolachlor did not significantly increase cowpea seed yield compared to that of the no-herbicide control in 1989, when potential weed pressure was 319 g m-2 (dry wt.). However, in 1989, these two herbicides each still increased net farm income by $206 per hectare compared to the income obtained without an herbicide.
Efren C. Celaya and Brenda S. Smith
A field experiment was conducted on broccoli (Taki Marathon variety) at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo to evaluate three rates of AN-20 for weed control and crop phytotoxicity. The rates were: low-40 gal./A, standard-60 gal./A, high-80 gal./A, and untreated control. Each treatment was applied to the base of the broccoli plant to avoid crop injury. Each treatment had four replications. Data collected included hoe time/plot and percent visual control. Broccoli was not injured at any rate of AN-20. It was noticed that the older weeds, greater than five-leaf stage, managed to pull through, so size of weed is crucial. On a cost-per-acre basis, the money saved on the high rate is half that of the low rate and one third that of the control. Weed control was not adequately controlled at the standard and low rates. An economic analysis was conducted, and it was found there was a savings as less labor was required to hoe the field when AN-20 had been applied.
Bonnie L. Appleton and Jeffrey F. Derr
Disks of several geotextiles, paper, fiberglass, and black polyethylene were compared with the herbicides oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, oxadiazon, and oryzalin plus benefin for suppression of weed growth around container-grown Southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis Engelm.), Chinese pistache (Pistacia chinensis Bunge.), and `Fashion' azalea [Rhododendron indicum (L.) Sweet × `Fashion']. The greatest weed control was obtained with a combination geotextile-preemergence herbicide (trifluralin) disk, indicating a possible new method of container weed control. Several of the barrier materials, including heavy wrapping and compressed peatmoss papers, black polyethylene, and one spunbonded geotextile, were inferior due to degradation or to weeds growing around the disk edges or center hole. No difference in crop growth was noted among the treatments. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-1- (3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4 -dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5 -(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 4-(dipropylamino) -3,5 -dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6 -dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (benefin); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(ttifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).
James Klett*, Dave Staats, and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2003 season, preemergence herbicide was applied to twelve container grown herbaceous perennials and woody plants and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicide and rates were: Flumioxazin (Broadstar) 113.5 g (label rate), 227 g and 454 g a.i./A. Herbicides were applied to Buxus microphylla `Winter Gem', Cytisus purgans `Spanish Gold', Festuca ovina glauca `Elijah Blue', Hakonechloa macra `Aureola', Lonicera tatarica `Arnold Red', Pachysandra terminalis `Green Sheen', Hydrangea arborescens `Annabelle', Mahonia aquifolium, Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Carex buchananii, Cerastium tomentosum, and Achillea millefolium `Red Beauty'. Weed control was excellent at all rates and controlled at least 99% of all weeds. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on Mahonia, Buxus, Cytisus, Festuca, Hakonechloa, Pachysandra or Phlaris. Phytotoxicity resulted on some of the other plants. Carex had smaller plants (dry weights) at all rates. Cerastium had severe phytotoxicty at the 227 g and 454 g rates and moderate stunting at the recommended label rate, 113.5 g. Hydrangea became chlorotic and stunted at the 113.5 g rate and some fatal toxicity ocurred at the 227 g and 454 g rates. Phytotoxicity resulted on Lonicera at all rates and ranged from mild chlorosis in leaf veins (113.5 g rate) to plant death (454 g rate). Achillea at the 113.5 g rate only resulted in stunted plant growth while the 227 g and 454 g rates resulted in severe phytotoxcity and plant death.