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Ockert P.J. Stander, Karen I. Theron, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

Fruit splitting of citrus ( Citrus sp.) is a physiological disorder of the rind ( Cronjé et al., 2014 ) and occurs in thin-rinded mandarin and mandarin hybrids ( Almela et al., 1994 ), as well as sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ) cultivars such as

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Alan R. Biggs and Gregory M. Peck

Although ‘Honeycrisp’ apples are very popular with consumers, they are prone to a number of production difficulties, which in turn make them challenging to grow and store. One of these challenges is bitter pit, a physiological disorder that has long

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Paul J.R. Cronje, Graham H. Barry, and Marius Huysamer

physiological disorders such as CI ( Holland et al., 2002 ; Purvis and Grierson, 1982 ; Purvis and Rice, 1983 ) in addition to being responsible for the chloroplast–chromoplast conversion during rind color development ( Barry and le Roux, 2010 ; Huff, 1984

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Theekshana C. Jayalath, George E. Boyhan, Elizabeth L. Little, Robert I. Tate, and Suzanne O’Connell

physiological disorders, such as bolting, bitterness, and tipburn ( Prohens-Tomás and Nuez, 2008 ). In addition, it is predicted that the region will experience a growing number of days with temperatures greater than 35 °C and a steady increase in extreme

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Misael O. Vega-García, Greici López-Espinoza, Jeanett Chávez Ontiveros, José J. Caro-Corrales, Francisco Delgado Vargas, and José A. López-Valenzuela

Tomato is one of the most popular and economically important vegetables in the world ( Madhavi and Salunkhe, 1998 ). However, it is susceptible to chilling injury (CI), a physiological disorder that affects mainly tropical and subtropical products

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Yuval Cohen, Stanley Freeman, Aida Zveibil, Rachel Ben Zvi, Yaakov Nakache, Shimon Biton, and Victoria Soroker

information accumulated during the years. This study indicates that among the three previously suggested causes of bunch drop (the greater date moth, A. sabella , fungal pathogens, and/or physiological disorders), the main cause, at least in the Dead Sea

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Bhaskar Bondada

of ripening. Failure to do so results in numerous ripening disorders marked by a wide range of undesirable physical and quality attributes ( Watkins, 2007 ). Some well-known examples of physiological disorders that reduce fresh market quality include

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Nana Millicent Duduzile Buthelezi, Tieho Paulus Mafeo, and Nhlanhla Mathaba

., 2009 ). For example, pathogens, bird attacks, and physiological disorders may manifest through fungal white mold ( Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ) and bacterial spot ( Xanthomonas axonopodis ), holes, and surface cracks, resulting in diminished, distorted

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Nadia A. Valverdi and Lee Kalcsits

( Gallardo et al., 2015 ; Serban, 2018 ). ‘Honeycrisp’ is challenging to grow because of its high susceptibility to physiological disorders such as bitter pit, which normally causes losses of ≈20%, but which can be up to 75% in extreme cases ( Cheng and Sazo

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Ed Stover, Michael J. Fargione, Christopher B. Watkins, and Kevin A. Iungerman

`McIntosh' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) display a rapid increase in ethylene production as they ripen, resulting in more preharvest drop and accelerated softening compared with other major cultivars. Economic considerations often dictate a choice between delaying harvest to achieve color development or harvesting earlier to avoid excessive fruit softening and drop. We have evaluated the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and summer pruning on this balance. Treatments were applied to trees in the Mid-Hudson region in New York state in 1995 and 1996, and a subset of treatments was applied in the Champlain Valley region in 1996. NAA, applied at 10 mg·L-1 in 1995 and 20 mg·L-1 in 1996, reduced drop on only one sample date in only one of the three trials. Ethephon at 150 mg·L-1 plus 10 mg·L-1 NAA, accelerated ripening and permitted harvest before substantial drop occurred. However, earlier harvest resulted in smaller fruit size, and if ethephon-treated fruit were not picked within a narrow window, rapid drop ensued, and fruit developed a high senescent breakdown incidence during storage. ReTain, containing AVG, at 124 g·ha-1 a.i. delayed drop in all three trials, but its use resulted in firmer fruit after storage in only two of seven comparisons. Use of ethephon on AVG-treated trees enhanced red color but accelerated drop, although it was reduced less than when ethephon was used alone. Severe late summer pruning accelerated red color development, drop and ripening in both years of the study. AVG was more effective for management of `McIntosh' harvest in the cooler Champlain Valley region than in the Mid-Hudson Valley region. Chemical names used: naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon); aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG).