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D. Bradley Rowe

Accelerating growth of nursery stock can produce marketable plants in less time, thus potentially increasing profits. The primary objective of this study was to compare adventitious rooting and initial growth of cuttings of three perennials species in response to slow-release fertilizer incorporated into the propagation media. The experiment was a split-plot consisting of four blocks, nine nutrient treatments, three species, and four cuttings per replication within each block-nutrient, species treatment. Treatments consisted of Nutricote 13-13-13 Type 180 and Nutricote 18-6-8 Type 180 incorporated into the rooting media, each at 3, 6, 9, and 12 g·L-1, and a control with no Nutricote. Species studied were Artemisia ludoviciana `Valerie Finnis', Gaura lindheimeri `Whirling Butterflies', and Nepeta ×faassenii `Six Hills Giant'. There were of 144 cuttings per species for a total of 432 cuttings. Fertilizer treatments did not influence rooting percentage, and no significant differences were found between the two formulations of fertilizer for top growth, root growth, rooting percentage, or root number. However, regardless of formulation or rate, the eight fertilizer treatments resulted in greater top and root dry weights when compared to the control. Top and root dry weight increased linearly within both fertilizer formulations.

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Franz J. A. Niederholzer and R. Scott Johnson

Urea foliar sprays may be a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative to soil applied fertilizer N in the postharvest period in tree crop production in California. While tree crop sulfur (S) status can interact with tree N status to affect growth, we know of no study assessing tree crop leaf N and S dynamics following fall (postharvest) foliar urea applications. We conducted a field study to measure temporal dynamics of leaf N and leaf S (% dry weight basis) following postharvest urea sprays on prune (Prunusdomestica) and almond (Prunus dulcis). June-budded nursery stock prune (`French' on Myro 29C) and almond (`Price' on Lovell) trees were sprayed to dripping with 6.5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w) standard urea solutions, respectively. Prunes were sprayed on 1 Oct. 2003 and almonds on 18 Nov. 2003. Leaf samples were taken over a 3-week (almond) or 8-week (prune) period, beginning just before treatment. Foliar urea sprays significantly increased prune (23%) and almond (14%) leaf N compared to untreated control within 8 days of application. This affect was transient, as there were no differences in leaf N concentrations between treated and untreated trees at final leaf sampling. Urea sprays did not affect almond leaf S concentration relative to untreated trees. Prune leaf S was significantly reduced compared to untreated trees 8 days after treatment, but only on that sampling date. Remobilization of S from the leaves of control trees of either species was not apparent.

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Bert T. Swanson, James B. Calkins, and Debra L. Newman

A manual for certified nursery and landscape professionals has been developed by the University of Minnesota Extension Service in conjunction with the Minnesota Nursery and Landscape Association (MNLA). The purpose of the certification manual is to facilitate the improvement of basic skills and knowledge of nursery and landscape professionals, to further the education and training of competent nursery and landscape professionals, and to serve as a training and reference manual for most levels of nursery and landscape culture and management. The manual consists of thirty-four chapters covering all aspects of woody plant biology and culture: abiotic and biotic plant stress; landscape design; installation and maintenance; plant marketing, merchandising and sales; and laws, regulations and safety concerns for nursery, landscape and garden center personnel. A concise glossary, the American Standard For Nursery Stock, and an illustrated nursery catalog are also included in the manual. The manual is an important part of the MNLA Certification Program whose purpose is to improve the skills, knowledge and, expertise of nursery and landscape professionals. The Certification Program also strives for faster recognition and promotion of professionalism within the industry and to the general public.

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James Lutz

Woody and herbaceous plants in urban and rural landscapes, nurseries, orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are becoming increasingly susceptible to deer damage. Most existing repellents are either ineffective, or are effective for short periods of time. This project presented four plant species treated with chicken eggs, Deer-Away, Hinder, Tree Guard, Milorganite, chicken eggs with Tree Guard, and chicken eggs with Transfilm, to 20 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Only chicken eggs alone and Deer-Away deterred deer from feeding on the containerized nursery stock. Chicken eggs alone performed significantly better than Deer-Away. In a second experiment, pelletized deer food treated with Deer-Away, Hinder (1:1 and 1:5), Tree Guard, Miller Hot Sauce (0.62% and 6.2%), and two experimental predator urines were presented to ten captive deer. Both rates of Miller Hot Sauce and predator urine #1 significantly reduced deer feeding on pelletized deer food. Deer-Away, Hinder 1:1, and predator urine #2 also reduced feeding. Hinder 1:5 slightly reduced feeding. Tree Guard was completely ineffective.

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Patrick M. McCool and Robert C. Musselman

Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch cv. Nonpareil), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Royal Blenheim), and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Halford] grafted nursery stock seedlings were exposed once per week for 4 hours to a maximum O3 concentration of 0.25 μl·liter-1 in field exposure chambers. Exposures were repeated for a total of 4 months in 1986 (year 1) and 1987 (year 2). Trunk caliper, number of shoots, and net growth (total seasonal weight increase) were measured at the end of each year. Almonds appeared to be the most sensitive to O3. Almond seedlings exhibited extensive foliar injury from O3, while apricot and peach seedlings were relatively insensitive. Total net growth of O3-exposed almond was reduced during both years relative to the controls and an impact on caliper was evident after year 2. Apricot seedlings exposed to O3 developed a thinner trunk but more shoots than the controls in both years. Peach tree seedlings exposed to O3 had fewer shoots than the controls at the conclusion of year 2 but thicker trunks after both years. No significant difference in variance or shape of distribution of net growth within the treatment populations between O3-exposed seedlings and controls was detected for any of the three fruit crops. The impact of O3 on young, nonbearing perennial fruit crops may be most evident in specific growth characteristics, such as net growth or trunk caliper.

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Hannah M. Mathers

Container nurseries are generally more productive than field nurseries because plants can be produced faster and at higher densities. Increasingly, nursery stock is being propagated, grown, and marketed in containers. The prime biological advantage of container stock over bareroot and field-grown balled and burlapped (B&B) stock is that the root system is packaged and protected from transplant or mechanical stress; however, temperature stress limits container production. Plants overwintered in containers suffer greater winter injury than those in the ground because the roots are surrounded by cold, circulating air rather than the insulating environment of the soil. There are several methods for providing protection from cold winter temperatures that are used in the nursery industry; however, all are labor intensive, expensive and vary in effectiveness. Container stock also suffers from elevated summer root zone temperatures. Cultivar differences in the degree of summer injury have been reported. With increasing human population pressures and decreasing availability of fresh water supplies, the need for more water-efficient nursery cultural practices becomes increasingly important. Water and nutrient use efficiency are predominant factors restricting nursery container production. Cultural factors that improve root function and reduce root injury and container heat load are considered key to improving these efficiencies. This paper examines temperature stress issues and the effects of different nursery cultural environments such as conventional overwintering systems, conventional gravel production surfaces, pot-in-pot production, and retractable roof greenhouses.

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Brian K. Maynard and William A. Johnson

Cupric hydroxide formulated as Spin Out™ [7% Cu(OH)2 in a latex carrier] was used to prevent the rooting-out of Taxus × media Rehd. `Densiformis' root balls into surrounding mulch or soil during storage over a 4-month period. Treatments evaluated in one study included: painting the bottom of the root ball with copper-paint, setting the root ball on copper-treated burlap or ordinary copper-treated burlap; rewrapping the root ball with copper-treated burlap before mulching or burlapping with copper-treated burlap, with appropriate controls. All treatments provided good control of rooting-out after 12 to 16 weeks storage. The most effective treatments were setting the root ball on copper-treated burlap (unmulched; 92% reduction in root count after 16 weeks) and rewrapping or burlapping into copper-treated burlap (mulched; 90% and 86% reduction in root count after 16 weeks). A second study used TexR® Agroliner (Spin Out™-treated non-woven fabric), on which root balls were set (unmulched treatments), rewrapped or burlapped (mulched treatments). TexR® Agroliner stopped rooting-out completely without adversely affecting plant quality. Using copper-treated burlap to prevent rooting-out during storage can reduce the incidence of re-balling and root removal prior to shipping and planting B&B nursery stock.

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Yao-Chien Chang and William B. Miller

Flowerbulbs and Nursery Stock.

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Yao-Chien Chang and William B. Miller

financial and material support from the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, the Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, the Kenneth Post-Herman Schenkel Memorial Council, and the Royal Dutch Wholesalers' Association for Flowerbulbs and Nursery Stock.

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Yao-Chien Chang and William B. Miller

and Nursery Stock.