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Michael V. Mickelbart, Michael J. Gosney, James Camberato, and Kelly M. Stanton

Leucospermum cordifolium cv. ‘High Gold’, and their relationship with chlorotic symptoms Sci. Hort. 107 373 379 Fielder, A.K. Landis, D.A. 2007 Attractiveness of Michigan native plants to arthropod natural enemies and herbivores Environ. Entomol. 36 751 765

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou, and Nikolaos Ntoulas

, both native and non-native species are usually used. However, native plants are preferred for urban green roofs as a result of their adaptation to local climatic conditions, their known growth pattern in the specific climatic region that permits the

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Sarah M. Smith and Zhanao Deng

Planting natives has become increasingly common in national/state parks, highway right-of-ways, and home landscapes ( Rogers and Montalvo, 2004 ). One group of native plants frequently used in such plantings in the United States is native

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Robert F. Gorman and Julie Roller

Ten plant species native to southeast Alaska and surrounding regions were selected based on their value as ornamentals, food crops, disturbed site revegetation, and traditional Native American uses. Between 2003–05, seeds, cuttings, rhizomes, and bulbs from the 10 native plant species were collected in Sitka, Alaska, and propagated according to existing plant propagation protocol for each species. The most successful propagation method for each species was determined from field trials. This information was provided through workshops and Extension publications to gardeners in southeast Alaska and other parts of Alaska. The purpose of this project was to enhance growing local native plants as ornamentals, food crops, in disturbed site revegetation and for traditional Native American uses, particularly among native elders unable to collect these plants in the wild. A secondary purpose was to create a market for native plants in southeast Alaska and spawn a cadre of local cottage market gardeners to grow native plants for existing small nurseries. The 10 species selected included: Cornus canadensis, C. stolonifera, Empetrum nigrum, Fritillaria camschatcensis, Linnaea borealis, Oplopanax horridus, Rubus chamaemorus, Vaccinium parvifolium, Vaccinium ovalifolium, and Viburnum edule.

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Maria Papafotiou and Aekaterini N. Martini

should be developed. Propagation by cuttings from native plants would apply extra pressure to wild populations and is limited to certain periods of the year when this species roots satisfactorily ( Papafotiou et al., 2013 ). Neither propagation by seed

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Maria Papafotiou, Niki Pergialioti, Lamprini Tassoula, Ioannis Massas, and Georgios Kargas

efforts to reduce urban heat island Built Environ. 49 348 358 Maclvor, J.S. Lundholmb, J. 2011 Performance evaluation of native plants suited to extensive green roof conditions in a maritime climate Ecol. Eng. 37 407 417 Molineux, C.J. Fentiman, C.H. Gange

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W. Gary Smith

Native plant ecosystems, such as meadows and forests, demonstrate how plant communities are physically organized in response to a variety of natural factors and environmental processes. By visiting native ecosystems and diagramming the spatial patterns of naturally evolving plant communities, landscape design students quickly gain confidence about the variety of spaces they can create with plants. In addition, they develop an understanding that the physical organization of plants can have ecological meaning, deeper than simple utility, function, or decoration.

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D.T. Lindgren

There has been a large increase in the use of native herbaceous prairie plants for ornamental purposes. They are also being used for cut flowers, medicinal purposes, and in restoration projects. To discuss the subject of breeding and selecting herbaceous plants for landscaping, it is convenient to divide the topic into three areas of interest: 1) selecting native ecotypes for use on specific sites; 2) selecting and breeding for nonnative/native plants for wildflower mixes; and 3) selecting, breeding and developing specific individual plants for ornamental/garden use. Native plant traits that are being evaluated at the Univ. of Nebraska West Central Center include competitiveness, pest tolerance, regional adaptation, flowering characteristics, foliage characteristics, proportionality of plants, ease of propagation, ease of establishment, and moisture requirements. In addition, research is being conducted at the West Central Center regarding genetic variation. For example, Dalea purpureum varies in height, foliage color, stems per plant, stem lodging, and time of flowering. Similar variation has been documented in Lithospermum, Calylophus, Penstemon, Liatris, and Echinacea, to name a few. Botanically, genetic variation has been documented within many native herbaceous species. However, plant breeders have done very little with these variations in genotypes, thus allowing considerable opportunity for breeding research with native herbaceous plants.

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Erin Alvarez, Sloane M. Scheiber, and David R. Sandrock

Water use is the most important environmental issue facing the horticulture industry. As a result, many water management districts are recommending native plants for their putative low-water requirements. Numerous textbooks and trade journals claim native plants use less water than non-natives; however, previous research found no difference in water use efficiency in the field between native and non-native species. Furthermore, recommendations of ornamental grasses for use as low-maintenance and low-water-requiring landscape plants have recently escalated. This study evaluated non-native Miscanthus sinensis `Adagio' and the native Eragrostis spectabilis for irrigation requirements and drought response in a landscape setting. To simulate maximum stress, both species were planted into field plots in an open-sided, clear polyethylene covered shelter. Each species was irrigated on alternating days at 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 L for a 90-day period. Growth index and height were recorded at biweekly intervals, and final shoot and root dry masses were taken at completion of the study. Significant treatment and species effects were found for height, growth index, shoot dry weight, and biomass. Plants receiving 0.75 L of irrigation had the greatest growth, and non-irrigated plants grew significantly less. Comparisons between species found growth was greatest among Eragrostis spectabilis plants for all parameters.

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Andrew C. Bell and Mary M. Peet*

Environmental restoration of streams and wetlands in North Carolina is creating a growing demand for commercially available native plant material. Recent changes in the tobacco industry have resulted in decreased production leaving some tobacco greenhouses, once utilized for a few months, empty year-round. Identifying alternative crops that can be grown in tobacco greenhouses will provide valuable income to economically distressed tobacco growers. The floatation system (sub-irrigation) employed in the production of tobacco transplants in greenhouses is similar to that utilized by some native plant nurseries to produce wetland and riparian species. Local production of this plant material can enhance restoration project goals by increasing utilization of regional germplasm in this industry and reducing the risk of importing exotic pests with material shipped from out-of-state. To research these possibilities, we constructed a demonstration tobacco greenhouse with multiple float beds. Three commercially available media, including a tobacco seedling mixture, were tested. No differences were observed among the plants grown in different media. After one growing season, we have identified close to 20 species, woody and herbaceous, that can be successfully grown in a traditional tobacco greenhouse with minimal input or alternation to the structure or normal production practices. Additional research is needed, however, to address optimal production criteria.