Gibberellin A3 (GA3: 1, 3, or 5 (μg/shoot), 6N-benzyladenine (BA: 1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot), or both were applied to the flowering shoots of a white hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid (Leda) when they were 2 to 3 cm (stage 1, no flower primordial long at high temperature (30 °C day/25 °C night). When flowering shoots were treated with GA3, alone, deformed flowers were more frequent with increasing GA3 concentrations. The occurrence of GA3-induced deformed flowers was prevented by BA at the same dose as GA3 when applied 4 days after GA3 treatment. BA (1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot) was also applied 4 days before (time 1) or 4 days after (time 2) GA3 (1 (μg/shoot) treatment for regulating plant characteristics. The application of BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot to stage 1 flowering shoots at time 2 resulted in short internodes between florets, whereas BA application at time 1 had no effect. Simultaneously, BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot applied at time 1 or time 2 to stage 2 (5 to 6 cm long, two- to three-flower primordia) flowering shoots also shortened internode length between florets as compared to GA3 alone. When a stage 1 flowering shoot was given BA (3 or 5, but not 1 μg/shoot) and then treated with GA3 4 days later, flower count was slightly reduced as compared to treating with (GA3 alone. However, a high dose of BA applied at time 1 or time 2 on stage 2 flowering shoots had no effect on flower count. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)], gibberellic acid (GA3).
Wen-Shaw Chen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Wen-Huei Chen, and Yih-Shyan Lin
Jane Whittaker, Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett, and Thomas J. Sheehan
The effect of postharvest dips on the longevity of Anthurium andraenum cultivar Nitta and Alpinia purpurata was evaluated. The inflorescences were dipped in a 200 ppm benzyladenine (BA) solution, an antitranspirant, or water for 10 minutes. After dipping, anthuriums were placed directly in water and gingers were placed in either water or a 2% sucrose solution and placed in interior conditions (10 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hr/day, 21±2C). Ginger longevity was increased by 10 days or more by the sucrose solution. The greatest longevity of gingers was obtained when dipped in either BA or the antitranspirant and held in the sucrose solution. Anthurium longevity increased 10 days when dipped in BA, while the other treatments had little effect.
The increase in the capitula of zinnia plants (Zinnia violacea Cav.) was investigated by analyzing the production of shoots. The effects of removing the buds for capitula and application of BA on the production of shoots were also evaluated. It took ≈40 to 50 days from the emergence of axillary buds to the opening of the capitula at the apices of the shoots from these axillary buds. The application of BA shortened the number of days for the same process. The difference in the number of days from emergence of the axillary buds to that of the first descendant axillary buds was ≈25. The total number of capitula opened was greater in plants with the bud removal treatment than in intact plants. Chemical name used: (N-phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).
Joann M. McLaughlin and Duane W. Greene
Combination postbloom sprays of BA at 50 mg·liter-1 and daminozide at 2000 mg·liter-1 were made to limbs of `Early McIntosh' apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) where all of the flowers were either removed before full bloom or allowed to remain. BA and fruit removal increased return bloom, whereas daminozide bad no effect. No treatment had a consistent effect on spur leaf area. Repeat sprays of GA4+7 to `Delicious' apple trees at full bloom (FB) +5, FB + 14, and FB +22 days reduced appendage development and flower bud formation on spurs. One spray of GAd+7 at 150 mg·liter-1 at FB +42 days reduced appendage formation and the percentage of flowering spurs but not as effectively as earlier repeat sprays of GA4+7 at 50 mg·liter-1 When BA at 150 mg·liter-1 was combined with the GA at FB +42 days, appendage formation was increased but the reduction in flowering was not reversed. One BA spray at 50 mg·liter-1 at FB +22 days to `McIntosh' trees increased the number of appendages formed in spurs, but return bloom was not influenced. Chemical names used: (N -phenylmethyl) -1 H -purine-6-amine (BA); butanedioic acid mono (2, 2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); gibberellins A4 and A7 (GA4+7).
Michael A. Arnold and Eric Young
CuCO3 at 100 g·liter-1 in a paint carrier applied to interior container surfaces effectively prevented root deformation in container-grown Malus domestica Borkh. and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. seedlings. CuCO3 treatments nearly doubled the number of white unsuberized root tips in both species. CuCO3 treatment increased some measures of root and shoot growth before and after transplanting to larger untreated containers. Root pruning at transplanting tended to reduce root and shoot fresh and dry matter accumulation in F. pennsylvanica seedlings and shoot extension in M. domestica seedlings. In some cases, root pruning of M. domestics at transplanting from CuCO3-treated containers increased root growth compared to unpruned CuCO3-treated and untreated seedlings. Changes in growth induced by CuCO3 and root pruning were not related to changes in trans -zeatin riboside-like activity in the xylem sap of-apple.
Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser
The height above the bud union at which induced feathers develop on fruit trees in the nursery is an important determinant of tree quality for an intended market. The bioregulators cyclanilide (CYC; Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC) and a proprietary formulation of 6-benzyladenine and gibberellins A4 and A7 (Promalin [PR]; Valent BioSciences, Walnut Creek, CA) affected the final height above the union of the lowest induced sylleptic shoot (feather) differently in apple and sweet cherry trees in the nursery. In apple, both products resulted in the lowest induced feather developing at approximately 4 to 20 cm below the height of the central leader shoot tip at the time of bioregulator application. In sweet cherry, the lowest induced feather typically originated starting approximately 2 to 20 cm above the central leader shoot tip height at the time of bioregulator application. Nursery tree height can serve as a suitable criterion for timing bioregulator applications to obtain feathers starting within a specific range of height above the bud union as long as species-specific feathering response characteristics are taken into account. Chemical names used: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (Cyclanilide), N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + gibberellins A4A7 (Promalin), polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid).
Yasuyoshi Hayata, Yoshiyuki Niimi, and Naoto Iwasaki
Applying a 200 ppm solution of CPPU to pollinated ovaries of watermelon (Citrullus lunatus Matsum) at anthesis increased fruit set from 26.9% (control) to 95%. Applying CPPU solutions to nonpollinated ovaries at anthesis induced parthenocarpy, yielding 65% and 89.5% fruit set, respectively with 20 and 200 ppm applications. However, 64% of the 20 ppm CPPU-treated parthenocarpic fruit stopped growth 10 days after treatment. Growth of CPPU-treated, pollinated, and nonpollinated fruit increased significantly compared with growth of control fruit during the first 10 days after treatment, but, except for the 20 ppm CPPU parthenocarpic fruit, growth subsequently slowed, resulting in fruit equal in size to the control by harvest. CPPU application did not affect soluble solids content of pollinated fruit, but reduced content of parthenocarpic fruit treated with 20 ppm. Fructose content was generally higher than glucose and sucrose at harvest. However, in pollinated fruit treated with 20 ppm CPPU, sucrose levels were higher than glucose and fructose. These results suggest that CPPU is practical for promoting fruit set and seedless fruit without adversely affecting fruit quality and development.
R. Rodriguez, C. Díaz-Sala, L. Cuozzo, and G. Ancora
Proliferation of Pyrus communis L. cv. Abate Fetel, Precoce Morettini, and Guyot was accomplished with a yield of 10 to 15 new shoots per explant. The in vitro procedure is based on the use of 6.7 μm BAP as an overlay on a modified MS medium. Rooting without callus formation was achieved by immersing the basal end in 5 μm IBA solution for 1 min. The possible inhibition of proliferation and plantlet regeneration by GA3 and IBA is discussed. Chemical names used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); gibberellic acid (GA3).
M.L. Arrebola, O. Socorro, A. Barceló-Muñoz, E. Simón-Pérez, and Fernando Pliego-Alfaro
A micropropagation procedure for juvenile and adult savory (Satureja obovata Lag.) explants is described. Pretreatment of the nutlets with gibberellic acid (0.57 mm) did not improve in vitro germination. Optimum shoot proliferation of juvenile and adult material was obtained on medium containing 2.22 μm N6-benzyladenine. Rooting and acclimatization of juvenile shoots were accomplished in vivo, while adult shoots were rooted in vitro after 3 days of exposure to 4.92 μm indole-3-butyric acid followed by subsequent transfer to auxin-free medium. More than 95% survival of adult rooted plants was obtained during the acclimatization phase. Chemical names used: gibberellic acid (GA3); N6-benzyladenine (BA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); isopentenyladenine (2iP).
Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch and Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
An efficient system for in vitro regeneration by organogenesis starting from internodal stem segments from seedlings of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swing.) and mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco cv. Monica) was developed. The best results were obtained when the wounded edges of internodal stem segments cut longitudinally were placed downward on the surface of the culture medium. The optimal culture medium from both species was Murashige and Skoog with vitamins from B5 medium, 5% sucrose, 33.3 μm BA and 5.4 μm NAA. The best response was obtained when the segments were incubated at 25 ± 2 °C for 21 d in darkness, followed by 29 d on a 16/8-h light/dark cycle (fluorescent light, 54 μmol·m-2·s-1). The best regeneration system tested allowed the attainment of adventitious shoots from 96% and 88% of the explants in Mexican lime and mandarin, respectively. In Mexican lime an average of 7.8 well-differentiated shoots per explant was obtained, and in mandarin the yield was 5.1. Rooting of 70% of the shoots was achieved in culture medium with NAA (2.7–5.4 μm) or IBA (2.5–4.9 μm). Of the rooted plants, 85% adapted well to soil conditions. Chemical names used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).