Changes in hormone concentrations in leaf, node, shoot tip, and fruit samples of three Turkish olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars (`Gemlik', `Memecik', and `Tavsan Yuregi') were monitored at monthly intervals over two successive years of the alternate-bearing cycle. Concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid-like substances (GA), and kinetin-like cytokinin were determined and their relationship to flower bud formation were examined during “on” and “off” years. Results showed significant differences in IAA, ABA, GA3-like, and kinetin-like cytokinins between “on” and “off” cropping years in various tissues of olive trees. Relative balances between GA3-like and ABA concentrations of tissues appears to exhibit evidence of being a key regulator of floral development and alternate bearing.
I. Baktir, S. Ulger, L. Kaynak, and David G. Himelrick
Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' plants were selected when their first flower buds reached 2 or 5 cm in length, sprayed with 2 mL of PBA at 0 or 500 mg·L–1, and then placed under 1440 or 60 μmol·m–2·s–1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) during flowering. PBA resulted in delayed anthesis and increased dry matter accumulation in flowers under the high PPF but had no effect under the low PPF. PBA did not decrease the severity of flower bud abortion under the low PPF. Application of PBA induced the formation of numerous bulbils in the leaf axils. Regardless of PPF, PBA-treated plants had less dry weight in the main bulbs than the control plants. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-9-(tetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (PBA).
Wen-Shaw Chen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Wen-Huei Chen, and Yih-Shyan Lin
Gibberellin A3 (GA3: 1, 3, or 5 (μg/shoot), 6N-benzyladenine (BA: 1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot), or both were applied to the flowering shoots of a white hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid (Leda) when they were 2 to 3 cm (stage 1, no flower primordial long at high temperature (30 °C day/25 °C night). When flowering shoots were treated with GA3, alone, deformed flowers were more frequent with increasing GA3 concentrations. The occurrence of GA3-induced deformed flowers was prevented by BA at the same dose as GA3 when applied 4 days after GA3 treatment. BA (1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot) was also applied 4 days before (time 1) or 4 days after (time 2) GA3 (1 (μg/shoot) treatment for regulating plant characteristics. The application of BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot to stage 1 flowering shoots at time 2 resulted in short internodes between florets, whereas BA application at time 1 had no effect. Simultaneously, BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot applied at time 1 or time 2 to stage 2 (5 to 6 cm long, two- to three-flower primordia) flowering shoots also shortened internode length between florets as compared to GA3 alone. When a stage 1 flowering shoot was given BA (3 or 5, but not 1 μg/shoot) and then treated with GA3 4 days later, flower count was slightly reduced as compared to treating with (GA3 alone. However, a high dose of BA applied at time 1 or time 2 on stage 2 flowering shoots had no effect on flower count. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)], gibberellic acid (GA3).
Jane Whittaker, Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett, and Thomas J. Sheehan
The effect of postharvest dips on the longevity of Anthurium andraenum cultivar Nitta and Alpinia purpurata was evaluated. The inflorescences were dipped in a 200 ppm benzyladenine (BA) solution, an antitranspirant, or water for 10 minutes. After dipping, anthuriums were placed directly in water and gingers were placed in either water or a 2% sucrose solution and placed in interior conditions (10 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hr/day, 21±2C). Ginger longevity was increased by 10 days or more by the sucrose solution. The greatest longevity of gingers was obtained when dipped in either BA or the antitranspirant and held in the sucrose solution. Anthurium longevity increased 10 days when dipped in BA, while the other treatments had little effect.
D.C. Elfving and R.A. Cline
Benzyladenine (BA) applied postbloom at 125 and 250 mg·liter-1 thinned `Empire' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees below commercial crop levels but thinned less than thidiazuron (THI) at 62 and 125 mg·liter-1. Ethephon (ETH) applied up to 250 mg·liter-1 reduced fruit set only slightly. When BA was tank-mixed with ETH, thinning was the same as with BA alone. Although THI thinned more, BA resulted in a larger increase in fruit weight. Seed development was nearly eliminated by THI, but was unaffected by either BA or ETH. Thinner effects on foliar nutrient concentrations were associated with changes in fruit load but not shoot growth. The effects of BA and ETH on fruit-flesh nutrient concentrations were similar to their effects on foliar nutrient concentrations. Although THI thinned strongly and produced large changes in foliar nutrient concentrations and seed count, THI resulted in virtually no changes in fruit-flesh nutrient concentrations. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1 H-purine-6-amine (benzyladenine); 2-chlorophosphonic acid (ethephon); N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron).
The increase in the capitula of zinnia plants (Zinnia violacea Cav.) was investigated by analyzing the production of shoots. The effects of removing the buds for capitula and application of BA on the production of shoots were also evaluated. It took ≈40 to 50 days from the emergence of axillary buds to the opening of the capitula at the apices of the shoots from these axillary buds. The application of BA shortened the number of days for the same process. The difference in the number of days from emergence of the axillary buds to that of the first descendant axillary buds was ≈25. The total number of capitula opened was greater in plants with the bud removal treatment than in intact plants. Chemical name used: (N-phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).
Martin J. Bukovac, John C. Neilsen, and Jerome Hull Jr.
Generally, NAA is effective in inducing fruit thinning in `Delicious'. Although significant thinning may be induced, fruit size at harvest may not be closely related to crop load. Further, the magnitude of response to NAA may vary markedly between seasons. Herein, we present an analysis of response of `Redchief Delicious' over several years (tree age 11–14 years old) to high-volume sprays of NAA (15 mg·L–1), BA (25-50 mg·L–1), and CPPU (5 mg·L–1) at KFD of 8–12 mm. A single tree was used for each treatment replicated four to six times and response was measured by yield and fruit size distribution for each tree. In eight experiments over 4 years, NAA resulted in an average 22% reduction in yield, a 5.1% reduction in large fruit (70 mm+) and 2% reduction in small (<64 mm) fruit compared to NTC. There was a marked variation in response among years. Over 4 years, BA averaged a 5% decrease in yield, a 15% increase in large fruit and a 21% decrease in small fruit. In contrast, when NAA was combined with BA at 25-50 mg·L–1, yield decreased an average of 30%, large fruit decreased by 68%, and small fruit increased 8-fold (2.54 vs 20.6 kg/tree). CPPU alone (2-year study) had no significant effect on yield, but increased large fruit by 60% and significantly reduced production of small fruit. When CPPU was combined with NAA, yield was reduced in both years and the amount of large fruit was increased in 1995, but decreased in 1996. NAA had a very inhibitory effect on fruit size in 1996. One explanation may be that the crop was produced by lateral fruit (king flowers were lost to frost), and NAA has a greater inhibitory effect on lateral than king fruit. Results will be discussed in relation to studies with `Jonathan' and `Empire'.
Richard L. Harkess and Robert E. Lyons
BA and GA4+7, were applied to vegetative, mature Rudbeckia hirta plants at the beginning of long days (LD). There were no synergistic effects, but BA inconsistently affected branching and had no effect on flowering. Floral initiation of the terminal inflorescence was promoted by GA4+7, although axillary inflorescences were not. Increasing GA4+7 levels decreased the time to terminal inflorescence anthesis. However, the interval between the terminal and second axillary inflorescence anthesis was increased. The net result was no significant effect on the time to second axillary inflorescence anthesis. Gibberellins may enhance the LD effect on the apical meristem of Rudbeckia, but axillary meristems, which initiate later, remained unaffected. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA), gibberellin4+7, (GA4+7).