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Moritz Knoche, Bishnu P. Khanal, and Matej Stopar

Westraad, 1988 ; Taylor, 1975 ; Wertheim, 1982 ). A typical application scheme comprises four treatments with GA 4+7 at 10 mg·L −1 applied in 10-d intervals starting at the onset of petal fall ( Greene, 1993 ; Looney et al., 1992 ). Microscopic cracks

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Timothy P. Hartmann, Justin J. Scheiner, Larry A. Stein, Andrew R. King, and Sam E. Feagely

( Bullard, 1987 ; Krewer et al., 1986 ; Lu and Reiger, 1990 ). Such trunk damage is commonly accompanied by the development of vertical cracking of bark or “trunk-splitting” ( Dozier et al., 1992 ; Gremminger et al., 1982 ; Massai et al., 1991 ; Sale

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Elio Jovicich, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Peter J. Stoffella, and Dorota Z. Haman

high-quality colored fruit can be reduced as a result of physiological disorders such as cracking on fruit walls (russet and radial scars), yellow spots, and necrosis on the blossom end of the fruit ( Aloni et al., 1994 , 1998 , 1999 ; Marcelis and

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Harwinder Singh Sidhu, Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, and Daniel MacLean

marketable; 3, moderate shriveling, fruit is not marketable; 4, severe shriveling, fruit is not marketable), fruit cracking (1, no cracking; 2, mild cracking with very thin cracks, possibly superficial, fruit marketable; 3, moderate cracking, small but wide

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Christine Schumann, Henrik Jürgen Schlegel, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, and Alexander Lang

Many soft and fleshy fruit crack on exposure of the fruit to surface water. Osmotic water uptake that occurs along a gradient in water potential between the surface water on the fruit and the water inside the fruit is thought to be causal. The water

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Bishnu P. Khanal, Rejina Shrestha, Leonie Hückstädt, and Moritz Knoche

result, any russeted fruit of this intermediate cultivar group are usually of reduced market value with potentially serious economic consequences for the grower. The mechanistic basis for russeting is not clear. Fine, cuticular cracks are considered the

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Carol A. Miles, Thomas S. Collins, Yao Mu, and Travis Robert Alexander

(D. Dempster, personal communication). Basal cracking and branching ( Figs. 1 and 2 ) were rated on a scale of 0 to 5, with a rating of 0 to 2 indicating no impact on marketability, a rating of 3 to 4 indicating a potential negative impact on

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Suzanne O’Connell, Cary Rivard, Mary M. Peet, Chris Harlow, and Frank Louws

-marketable fruit was sorted into different categories based on types of defect including: cat-facing, blossom end rot, insect damage, fruit cracking, TSWV, and “other.” The number of individual tomatoes as well as the total weight of fruit for each category was

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Mary A. Rogers and Annette L. Wszelaki

, heirloom varieties can be challenging to produce because they tend to be physically inconsistent in growth and form and prone to bruising, splitting, and cracking; thus, their distribution is often limited to local fresh markets ( Vavrina et al., 1997

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Thanidchaya Puthmee, Kenji Takahashi, Midori Sugawara, Rieko Kawamata, Yoshie Motomura, Takashi Nishizawa, Toshiyuki Aikawa, and Wilawan Kumpoun

chemical components, but also on its anatomical structures ( Schreiber et al., 2005 ). In fact, unhealed cracks can still be observed along the netted surface, even at fruit ripening, suggesting that moisture from the hypodermal tissues could be lost