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Allen V. Barker

core section of the book. This section has three chapters addressing the influence of species, environment, and experimental procedures on freezing patterns in plants, low-temperature tolerance in conifers, and cold-hardening responses in insects

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Ryan N. Contreras, Ron Determann, and Mara Friddle

the author was familiar. In contrast to reports of a base number of 11 for Cryptomeria japonica ( Khoshoo, 1961 ; Sax and Sax, 1933 ), Dark (1932) reported a base chromosome number of 12, which is common in other genera of conifers. The report by

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R. Kasten Dumroese, Jasmine L. Williams, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Peng Zhang

In bareroot nurseries used to produce conifer seedlings for reforestation, production is hampered by weeds. Fumigation, hand treatments, mechanical treatments, and herbicides can all be used to control weeds; herbicides are particularly cost

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Garry Vernon McDonald, Geoffrey C. Denny, Michael A. Arnold, Donita L. Bryan, and Larry Barnes

of conifer species used as ornamental plants, including taxodium ( Leahy, 2000 ). Cercosporidium sequoiae is also the causative agent in currently prevalent occurrences of foliage and stem blight in Leyland cypress [X Cupressocyparis leylandii

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Geoffrey C. Denny and Michael A. Arnold

been reliable criteria for distinguishing between species of other conifers ( Watson, 1983 ). Therefore, Watson (1983) classified pondcypress as a botanical variety of T. distichum. Also, Tsumura et al. (1999) concluded that pondcypress should

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Robert J. Richardson and Bernard H. Zandstra

producer level ( Klewano and Matthews, 2005 ). Conifer seedlings typically are grown in nurseries for 3 to 5 years before transplanting in production fields. After transplanting, trees take an additional 8 to 12 years to reach harvestable size. Due to the

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, James S. Owen Jr., and Andy Hoegh

Japanese-cedar [ Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don] is a variable conifer that grows up to 60 m tall in its native range. Wild-type specimens are conical when young and become cylindrical with age ( Eckenwalder, 2009 ). Japanese

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James C. Sellmer

first listing native plants classified by type (e.g., shade and specimen trees, shrub and understory trees, conifers, vines, grasses, herbaceous perennials) with wildlife value for general regions across the country (e.g., Mid-Atlantic, Southeast

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Jeong-Ho Lee

of small evergreen conifers that grow in cool, temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as well as more tropical mountainous areas of the Philippines and Mexico ( Vogan et al., 2004 ). Species of Taxus can have extreme longevity, and there have

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Robert F. Polomski

instructions for pruning specific trees that include crape myrtles, conifers, palms, and cycads, and offers techniques for pruning shrubs. Chapter 16, “Root Pruning and Management,” canvasses the scientific literature and introduces the reader to our current