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Christine Meyer, Ellen T. Paparozzi*, Scott J. Josiah, and Erin M. Blankenship

Woody floral stems are an emerging specialty crop within the floral industry, and stem color is a key to marketability. This study was conducted to assess stem color change over time in order to determine the optimum window for stem harvest. Plants of `Scarlet curls', `Flame' willow, `Bailey', `Cardinal' and `Yellow twig' dogwood were planted in a randomized complete block design in rows parallel to a windbreak.. Each experimental unit consisted of a group of five plants, each of the same cultivar. Plants were initially tagged at a set height and stem diameter and measured for color. Each stem was also tagged with one of three colored tapes, according to initial color: green for green colored stems, red for stems already showing color change, and pink for intermediate colored stems. Color was assessed initially and on a weekly basis for 10 weeks, starting at the end of September, using the Royal Horticultural Society color chart. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures procedure. `Scarlet curls' and `Flame' stems, already displaying color, attained the darkest color value for their cultivar at an early stage and were at the point of harvest in early November, while stems that were initially green never attained a similar dark color value. `Yellow twig' dogwood stems already displaying color and those beginning to color attained the darkest color value in late November. `Cardinal' stems attained a darker color value more quickly than other dogwood stems. In most cases, stems of `Cardinal' dogwood could be harvested from early October until early December, while early November was the optimum time to harvest `Bailey' dogwood stems. Woody florals planted closest to the windbreak were more variable in color development and, in some cases, appeared to be more vigorous.

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Barbara J. Daniels-Lake and Robert K. Prange

The importance of light fry color to the potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry cannot be overstated. Because most of the North American potato crop must be stored for many months between harvest and processing, it is important to

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Carmina Gisbert, Judith M. Dumm, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova, and John R. Stommel

very low concentration, fruit are green pigmented and if chlorophyll concentration is also very low, fruit color is white. Anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory gene duplication and subsequent sequence divergence are postulated to account for genetic

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Jan Bizjak, Nika Weber, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Zobayer Alam, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth, and Robert Veberic

An intense red skin color is an important quality parameter for consumers when purchasing apples and can contribute much to a higher market value of the fruit. In apple fruits, red color is mainly the consequence of the presence of anthocyanins

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Rachel A. Itle and Eileen A. Kabelka

a wide range of whites, yellows, and oranges ( Gross, 1991 ). This color is based on the particular carotenoid types and concentrations that are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Over a dozen genes that affect the rind and flesh color

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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian, and Se Won Park

blue) on plant growth and development, metabolites (total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, protein, and free amino acid), color, and pungency of fruit in chili pepper. Materials and Methods Plant material. Seeds of commercial chili pepper ( Capsicum

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Yan Bai, Wen Chen, Shou-Zan Liu, Lin-Yu Xu, Zhe Li, and Bin Liu

are specifically influenced by light are unclear. In this study, T. hemsleyanum was grown under color films to simulate different light conditions. Color films are widely used in T. hemsleyanum cultivation to decrease light intensity ( Gao and

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Kenneth R. Summy and Christopher R. Little

Remote sensing has been used for the last several decades to detect both abiotic and biotic stressors affecting agricultural crops. Studies have traditionally focused on aerial image acquisition using color infrared (CIR) photography of plant

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David B. Headley and Robert G. Mower

The color of a tree's canopy can provide much information about the tree's physiological status as well as its aesthetic function. We present a system for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of tree canopy color, based on a previously published algorithm. This algorithm determines (with a known accuracy) the Munsell hue, value, and chroma of a color using densitometric readings obtained through the use of color separation filters. This method was adapted for use with black-and-white video images. Combining the Rib algorithm with the techniques of photography, video imagery, scanning microdensitometry, and batch data computer processing, a semi-automated system was devised for the pixel-by-pixel color evaluation of a 512 × 512-pixel image. Based on a sample of 251 color chips, the following accuracies were obtained: Munsell hue—86%, Munsell value—93%, Munsell chroma—70%, and Munsell color—62%. An example is provided that demonstrates how this system may be used to determine tree canopy color. By employing this technique, an estimation may be made of the colors and their relative quantities that are displayed by a tree's canopy.

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Ignasi Iglesias and Simó Alegre

For many red and bicolored apple cultivars, including Gala, Delicious, and Fuji, red color (the intensity and quality of red skin) and fruit size are important parameters within the grading standards for European Union (EU) countries ( Diario