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James Mattheis and David R. Rudell

risk at low pO 2 is unknown—as is how higher temp/longer duration conditioning would influence the low pO 2 impacts on fruit quality, particularly SSC, TA, and peel color. Longer conditioning duration can enhance lenticel breakdown, bitter pit

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Giverson Mupambi, Nadia A. Valverdi, Hector Camargo-Alvarez, Michelle Reid, Lee Kalcsits, Tory Schmidt, Felipe Castillo, and Jonathan Toye

were stored for 3 months in regular atmosphere storage at 1 °C and were evaluated for bitter pit incidence after storage. The other eight fruit were immediately analyzed for overall color, background color, starch, soluble solid concentration (SSC

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koutinas, and Antonios Petridis

rootstock over a period of 3 years (from the fifth until the seventh year of the trees). During storage, fruits of ‘Achilles’, like its parent ‘Firiki’, do not show symptoms of the physiological disorder “bitter pit” or “external browning.” The only

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Thomas Sotiropoulos and Nikolaos Koutinas

not show the postharvest physiological disorders ( Watkins, 2003 ) “external browning” or “water core,” but some years, fruits showed “bitter pit.” However, this problem was resolved by calcium sprays. Fig. 1. Fruits of the apple cultivar Eris. Table 1

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Torrance R. Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson, and Matthew D. Whiting

-fruit sample from each tree was rated for visual defects, including sunburn, bitter pit, and splitting. Fruit russet incidence and severity was recorded in categories of stem bowl, fruit shoulder, smooth solid, and net type on fruit flanks. Fruit

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

intensity of fruit red color, although we took a note of the color intensity and pattern. At harvest, each individual fruit was gently wiped with a damp cloth and the percentage of fruit with visible russet, minor cracks, bitter pit, and sunburn on the fruit

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, Lisa W. DeVetter, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

concluded that insufficient Ca or an imbalance of Ca with other nutrients (P, Mg, K, etc.) can cause bitter pit disorder in apple [ Malus × sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] ( de Freitas et al., 2015 ; Ferguson and Watkins, 1989

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Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Marc A. Dilley, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Cameron P. Peace

‘WA 2’ have shown only moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew ( Podosphaera leucotricha ) and fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ). Fruit rarely exhibits russet, bitter pit, or sunburn in the apple growing regions of central Washington. Genotype

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V. Ognjanov

’, mainly being prone to superficial scald. However, without preharvest calcium sprays, Smaragd’ is less susceptible to bitter pit than ‘Granny Smith’. Principal component analysis provided differentiation between ‘McIntosh Wijcik’, ‘Granny Smith’, and

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Steven McArtney, Dick Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, and Ann Green

bear regularly ( Jonkers, 1979 ). Fruit from light-cropping trees can develop a higher incidence of the calcium-related storage disorder bitter pit ( Ferguson and Watkins, 1992 ). A successful chemical thinning program will normally result in adequate