The response of different doses of calcium sulfate or phosphogypsum (PG) on several postharvest quality parameters of `Laguna' cantaloupe hybrid were analyzed in the semi-arid San Francisco experiment station (UCLA), located in the Lara state, Venezuela. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four treatments (0, 300, 600, and 1200 kg/ha, PG) with five replications. The PG was surface-spread on the irrigation furrows, 1 day before sowing. The fruits were harvested at maturity and stored under an average temperature of 28°C for posterior quality analysis. The PG treatments did not have any effect on the studied parameters: total soluble solids (°Brix), consistency (kg/cm2), diameter, and cavity of the fruit, pulp thickness, and dry and fresh matter. All of the parameters evaluated decreased during the 6 days of storage. These results could be because of the low doses of PG used or because the supply of calcium was not a limitation in these soils.
Hugo Ramirez, Mary Torcates, Jose Perez, Josefina Rodriguez, and Marin E. Perez
Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Mango `Keitt' is characterized by a poor external color development and a slightly high transpiration rate during ripening, which affect external quality. When fruit is ripening, the peel turns from a green to yellowish or dull green color, and the peel has no shine. We evaluated the effectiveness of three film coatings to reduce weight loss, improve appearance, and maintain quality during ripening of `Keitt' mango fruits. Four lots of fruits were obtained from a packinghouse in late September and transported to the laboratory. Each lot was sprayed at the commercial recommended rates with SemperFresh™, Natural Shine™, TFC 210, and FreshSeal™ coatings. Water sprayed fruits were used as a control. After applications, fruits were stored for 15 days at 22 °C and 85% RH to simulate marketing conditions. Quality parameters evaluated included weight loss (%), firmness, external and internal colors (hue, chroma, l), respiration rate (CO2 production), and chemical parameters such as pH, titratable acidity and °Brix. After 15 days, fruits coated with Natural Shine reduced 50% of the weight loss as compared to control fruits, while fruits coated with FreshSeal and SemperFresh reduced only 1.7% and 3.5%, respectively. Firmness declined from 155 N to 10 N during storage, being more evident on day 10, when fruits were table ripe. Fruits treated with SemperFresh were softer as compared with the other treatments. Titratable acidity decreased from 0.8% to 0.2% during storage and °Brix increased from 13 to 17–18 in all treatments. Fruit coated with Natural Shine had reduced weight and firmness loss. Additionally, fruits developed a better external color, with lower hue values, higher chromaticity and luminosity, which improve fruit appearance.
Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Bananas are usually harvested at the “all green” maturity stage in the country of origin and exported to main markets. Upon arrival, fruits are forced to ripen with ethylene and moved to market conditions to accelerate color change and ripening. Fruits exposed to low relative humidity conditions at market frequently induce browning of the peel and diminish quality. To protect fruits marketed under those conditions and to reduce peel browning, SmartFresh™ (1-MCP) alone or combined with two film coatings was evaluated. Banana Cavendish type fruits obtained from a warehouse at all green color stage were applied with two film coatings: 1) SemperFresh™ (1.2%); or 2) FreshSeal™ (3 °Brix). Additionally, a set of fruits were left as a control without coatings. Coated and control fruits were then exposed to 150 ppm of ethylene for 24 hours at 20 °C. When fruits reached color stage 3 (more green than yellow), 0 and 300 ppb of 1-MCP were applied for 12 hours at 22 °C. Fruits from all six treatments were stored at 22 °C and 30% to 40% relative humidity for 5 days to follow quality changes and browning development. Weight loss, firmness, color, pH, acidity, °Brix and appearance were evaluated daily. Control fruits, SmartFresh™ alone, FreshSeal™ + SmartFresh™ and both film coatings alone lost more than 10% of weight after 5 days. Only fruits treated with SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ reduced weight loss below 10%. Firmness tests indicated a higher force penetration due to dehydration of peel. Pronounced browning was observed on control fruits. SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ delayed yellow color appearance, sugar spot incidence, and peel browning development, extending shelf-life. No significant changes were observed on chemical characteristics.
Graham H. Barry, William S. Castle, Frederick S. Davies, and Ramon C. Littell
Variability in fruit quality of citrus occurs among and within trees due to an interaction of several factors, e.g., fruit position, leaf: fruit ratio, and fruit size. By determining variability in fruit quality among i) fruit, ii) trees, iii) orchards, and iv) geographic locations where citrus is produced in Florida, optimal sample size for fruit quality experiments can be estimated. To estimate within-tree variability, five trees were randomly selected from each of three `Valencia' orange orchards in four geographic locations in Florida. Six fruit were harvested from each of two tree canopy positions, southwest top and northeast bottom; fruit were not selected or graded according to fruit size. °Brix and titratable acidity of juice samples were determined, and the °Brix: acid ratio was calculated. Statistical analysis of fruit quality variables was done using a crossed-nested design. The number of trees to sample and the number of fruit per sample were calculated. To estimate between-tree variability, 10 trees were randomly selected from each of three `Valencia' orange orchards from four geographic locations in Florida. Fifty-fruit composite samples were picked from around the tree canopy (0.9 to 1.8 m). Juice content, SSC, acid content, and ratio were determined. Using a nested design, the number of orchards and number of trees to sample were determined. There was greater variability in fruit quality among trees than within trees for a given canopy position; the optimal sample size when taking individual fruit samples from a given location and canopy position is four fruit from 20 trees. There was less variability in fruit quality when 50-fruit composite samples were used, resulting in an optimal sample size of five samples from three orchards within each location.
John C. Beaulieu, Karen L. Bett, Elaine T. Champagne, Daphne A. Ingram, James A. Miller, and Ralph Scorza
Many consumers do not buy peaches due to the fuzzy skin and seed stone and because out-of-season peaches do not possess optimum tree-ripe flavor. The feasibility of using a non-browning freestone peach to deliver high-quality fresh-cut products was investigated. Changes in fresh-cut flavor, texture, and postharvest attributes of commercial-ripe (CR) vs. tree-ripe (TR) harvested and shipped `Bounty' peach was assessed. Fresh-cut CR wedges had an initial firmness of 20.9 N, whereas TR wedges had 11.2 N. On day 2, firmness decreased roughly 3% to 12% and 35% to 45% for CR and TR wedges held at 1 °C, respectively. By day 5, CR wedges hardened (24.5 N) whereas TR did not return to their initial firmness; increasing marginally through day 7. Sensory panel hardness for CR did not change through storage, but with TR wedges, hardness decreased through day 2 then increased until day 7. Little variation was noted in the initial soluble solids for CR vs. TR wedges (11.7, vs. 11.4 °Brix, respectively). After 7 days storage, °Brix decreased 7.5% to 12% in CR and 4.5% to 12% in TR wedges. Yellow flesh color (b*) decreased in all CR and TR treatments through storage. Flavor compounds in expressed juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction with GC-MS. Several peaks were identified that may be associated with flavor-related changes that occurred during storage. For example, low molecular weight acetates and 6C compounds almost disappeared during storage, whereas short chain fatty acids, lactones, and palmitic acid increased markedly through storage. In TR, the “fruity” descriptor decreased throughout storage and “sweet aromatic” increased slightly (day 2) then decreased through day 7.
J. Antonio Orozco, A.A. Gardea, E. Valenzuela, V. Guerrero-P, and E. Carvajal-Millan
Table grapes grown in the Sonoran Desert of Mexico are mostly an export commodity directed to early season markets. In order to define the effect on canopy management on light use and berry ripening, `Perlette' vines planted along eastwest rows (typical in such a region) were trained under four systems: slanted pergolas (SP), CIAD, lyre (LY), and T-trellis with open canopies (TTOC). They were compared with traditional closed-canopy T-trellis (TT). Variables evaluated were photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), photosynthesis (PH), stomatal resistance (SR), chlorophyll content (CC), and berry total soluble solids (TSS). At harvest, PAR values for LY, SP, CIAD, TTOD, and TT were 2192, 2076, 1900, 885, and 771 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. In the same order, PH at veraison was 12.5, 12.7, 11.0, 10.5, and 5.1 μmol CO2/m2 per s, while in recently harvest vines it decreased to 9, 9, 8.1, 5.1, and 3.7 μmol CO2/m2 per s. SR at veraison was 3.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3.9, and 4.2 s/cm, but, after harvest it was 2.5, 3.5, 2.3, .2.9, and 6.8 s/cm. No significant differences in CC were found among treatments. TSS on 27 Apr. reached 14.9, 15.3, 15.7, 14.5, and 12.2 °Brix; on 29 Apr. they increased to 15.9, 15.5, 16.3, 15.1, and 13.1 °Brix. Based on the above, we demonstrated that canopy management and sunlight cropping represent a useful tool to advance table grape ripening, thus allowing an early harvest and therefore access to the high prices typical of early season markets.
T.J. Zabadal and M.J. Bukovac
The effect of CPPU [forchlorfenuron; N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N-phenylurea] on berry development of selected seedless and seeded grape cultivars was evaluated under field conditions. A concentration response curve was initially established by spraying clusters of `Himrod' at a mean berry diameter of 5 mm with 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm CPPU. Berry enlargement was monitored (16, 30, 44, and 59 days after treatment) during development and cluster weight, berry number/cluster, weight, firmness and °Brix were determined at harvest. Berry size was dramatically (2.3 vs. about 3.6 g/berry) increased at harvest by all concentrations of CPPU; the response being linearly related to concentration (r 2 = 0.89). Cluster weight and compactness (rated) and berry firmness were significantly increased. There was no significant effect on berry number (79 to 86/cluster). °Brix and rachis necrosis (at harvest) as well as berry abscission after 30 days of refrigerated storage were significantly reduced. Effect of time of CPPU application (0, 5, and 10 ppm) was established by treatment of clusters at mean berry diameters of 4, 5, 7, and 9 mm. Response was indexed by following berry enlargement at 14, 28, 42, and 56 (maturity) days after treatment. Maximum berry enlargement for both 5 and 10 ppm was obtained from applications at 4 to 7 mm in diameter. Relative responsiveness of seedless and seeded cultivars was compared by application of CPPU at 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm to clusters (4–6 mm berry diameter) of seedless `Himrod', `Vanessa' and `Lakemont' and seeded `Concord' and `Niagara'. Bioresponse was determined by a time course of berry enlargement and berry and cluster weight, number of berries/cluster and rating cluster compactness at maturity. CPPU at all concentrations increased seedless berry diameter significantly from the first measurement at 14 days through 56 days after maturity. Berry and cluster weight and cluster compactness were increased in the seedless cultivars, although `Lakemont' appeared less responsive than `Himrod' and `Vanessa'. CPPU did not change (`Lakemont') or decreased (`Himrod', `Vanessa') berries/cluster. In contrast, the only effect of CPPU on the seeded cultivars was an initial increase in berry diameter 14 days after application.
Thomas J. Zabadal and Martin J. Bukovac
The effects of CPPU [forchlorfenuron, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N-phenylurea] on berry development of Vitis labrusca and V. labrusca × V. vinifera cultivars was evaluated under field conditions. A concentration response was initially established by spraying clusters of `Himrod' at a mean berry diameter of about 5 mm with 0, 5, 10, or 15 mg·L–1 CPPU. Berry enlargement was monitored (16, 30, 44, and 59 days after treatment) during development. Cluster mass, number of berries per cluster, berry mass and firmness, and °Brix were determined at harvest. Berry mass was dramatically increased (2.3 versus about 3.6 g/berry) at harvest by all concentrations of CPPU. Cluster mass and compactness were also increased and berry firmness was linearly related to CPPU concentration (r 2 = 0.997). There was no significant effect on number of berries per cluster (79 to 86). °Brix, rachis necrosis at harvest, and berry abscission after 30 days of refrigerated storage (1 °C) were significantly reduced. Effect of time of CPPU application (0, 5, and 10 mg·L–1) was established by treatment of clusters at mean berry diameters of about 4, 5, 7, and 9 mm. Response was indexed by following berry enlargement at 14, 28, 42, and 56 (maturity) days after treatment. Maximum berry size for both 5 and 10 mg·L–1 was obtained from applications at 4 to 7 mm berry diameter. Relative response of seedless and seeded cultivars was compared by application of CPPU at 0, 5, 10, or 15 mg·L–1 to clusters (4 to 6 mm berry diameter) of seedless `Vanessa' and `Lakemont' and seeded `Concord' and `Niagara'. Bioresponse was determined by a time course of berry enlargement and berry and cluster mass, number of berries per cluster, and rating cluster compactness at maturity. Except for `Lakemont' at the 5 mg·L–1 concentration, CPPU at all concentrations increased seedless berry diameter significantly from the first measurement at 14 through 56 days after application. Berry and cluster mass and cluster compactness were significantly increased in `Vanessa'. In contrast, the only effect of CPPU on the two seeded cultivars was an increase in berry size in `Concord' and an initial increase in berry size 14 days after application in `Niagara'.
J. Brent Loy
Premature harvest of acorn squash is a widespread problem because fruits reach maximum size and optimum color within 20 days after pollination (DAP), well before peak dry matter and sugar content occur. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between harvest date and physiological factors affecting eating quality in Cucurbita pepo L. squash. In the summer of 2005, C. pepo squash cultivars were evaluated at three harvest dates, 25, 35, and 45 days after pollination (DAP), with or without a 10-day storage period at 21 °C. Four F1 hybrid cultivars carrying powdery mildew tolerance (PMT) were evaluated: a semi-bush, commercial acorn cultivar (`Tip Top'), a high quality experimental acorn, bush hybrid (NH1634), and two sweet dumpling-type, semi-bush hybrids (NH1635 and 1636). Data were collected on mesocarp DW, oBrix (soluble solids), and partitioning of biomass between mesocarp tissue and developing embryos during storage. Peak DWs of 20% to 21% occurred at 25 DAP in NH1634, 1635 and 1636, and at 35 DAP in Tip Top (19.5 %). At 25 DAP, Brix was low (means of 5.9 to 7.2) across all cultivars. With harvest at 25 DAP plus 10 days storage, oBrix was low in Tip Top (7.1), but was higher than 10 in NH1634 and NH1636. Brix reached near maximum (13 to 15) at 45 DAP in NH1634, 1635 and 1636, and at 55 DAP in Tip Top (12). Embryos were small (DW = 8 to 19 mg) at 25 DAP and grew fairly linearly to a maximum at 55 DAP. Mean embryo DW at 55 DAP was 87.5 mg for Tip Top, 76.9 mg for NH1636, 57.1 mg for NH1634, and 28.5 mg for NH1635. The proportion of total fruit biomass expressed as energy equivalents (kJoules) allocated to embryos in mature fruit (45 DAP + 10 days storage) was 11.8% in NH1635, 18.7% in NH1634, 27.4% in Tip Top, and 30.2% in NH1636. Reallocation of assimilates from mesocarp tissue to developing embryos was a major contributing factor, along with respiration, to a reduction in mesocarp dry matter during storage.
Juan L. Silva
A total of 6 cvs and 14 lines of sweetpotatoes were analyzed by sensory panel for baking and canning quality. Baked samples were cured, washed, foil-wrapped, and baked for 1.5 h at 177°C. Canned samples were lye peeled and finished, packed with 20°Brix sucrose in 303 × 406 cans, and retorted for 25 min at 121.1°C. Beauregard and 'L86-33' scored the highest on canned samples. In analyzing the different sensory attributes, color uniformity had the highest partial R2 for both baked (0.61) and canned (0.67) products. Moistness (R2=0.13) and mouthfeel (R2=0.15) were the subsequent important factors followed by eye appeal, smoothness, lack of fiber and attractiveness. Thus color attributes accounted for 67.0% (baked) and 78.4% (canned) of the average rating of sweetpotatoes. Textural attributes followed with flavor being last with 1.0% and 1.1%. for baked and canned products, respectively. When averaging all samples, eye appeal and color uniformity were below the acceptable rating (6) in baked samples. For canned samples. attractiveness and color intensity were rated the lowest. This work shows that the average or total score given to a cv/line should be the result of the weighted scores of each attribute rated and not the arithmetic mean. Also, breeders should incorporate color intensity, uniformity, and susceptibility to browning ratings early in their program.