Genetic variation in growth rhythm, hardiness and height of 24 populations from 3 subspecies in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) were studied in a field test. The relative variance component of subspecies varied from 26.2% to 73.7% of total variance. Subspecies turkestanica had a growth mode of late start-late finish, ssp. rhamnoides, intermediate start-early finish and ssp. sinensis, early start-intermediate finish. Subspecies rhamnoides had a growth period of 129 days, ≈30 days shorter than the two Asian subspecies. The average height of ssp. rhamnoides was 43.7 cm, about one-third of that for ssp. tarkestanica and sinensis. Subspecies rhamizoides was more hardy than ssp. sinensis, which was still more hardy than ssp. turkestanica. The variance among populations was generally comparable with within population variance. Except for hardiness, variations for all characters were much larger in ssp. rhamnoides than in ssp. sinensis. The total genetic variance (subspecies plus population) varied from 50% to 84% of total variance for all characters, except 37% for secondbracts. Later growth cessation was correlated with longer growth period, taller plants, more severe frost and winter damage. Strong clinal variation showed that the higher the latitude, the earlier the growth cessation, the shorter the growth period and plant height, the more hardy the population. -The results indicated that population selection should bean efficient way for growth rhythm and plant height. Clinal variation provides guidelines for seed and plant transfer as well as plant introduction. With limited collection and management capacity in germplasm conservation, the recommendation is to collect fewer individuals in each population but more populations along latitude.
Yingmou Yao and Peter M.A. Tigerstedt
Paul C. St. Amand and Todd C. Wehner
Leaf and stem resistance to gummy stem blight [Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm.] in five resistant by susceptible crosses of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was investigated using generation means analysis. No single gene of major effect controls either leaf or stem resistance to gummy stem blight in these five crosses. The mean number of effective factors controlling leaf resistance in the cross `Slice' × `Wis. SMR 18' was estimated to be at least five. Estimates of broad- and narrow-sense heritabilities indicated that environmental effects were larger than genetic effects. In general, additive variance was the larger component of genetic variance. Epistasis was significant in most crosses, and dominance was present in several crosses. Additive gene effects contributed more to resistance than to susceptibility in contrast with dominance gene effects. Reciprocal differences for leaf rating were detected in the crosses M 17 × `Wis. SMR 18' and `Slice' × `Wis. SMR 18'. Phenotypic correlations between leaf and stem ratings were moderate (r = 0.52 to 0.72). Estimates of genetic gain for resistance to gummy stem blight ranged from low to moderate. Breeding methods that make best use of additive variance should be used because much of the variance for resistance is additive, and dominance effects, at least in these crosses, tended to contribute to susceptibility.
Heidi C. Wernett, Gary J. Wilfret, Thomas J. Sheehan, Paul M. Lyrene, Frank G. Martin, Timothy L. White, Gregory L. Powell, and Charles J. Wilcox
Intensive selection to improve vase life was performed on a sample population of Gerber ×hybrida Hort. from a broad source of germplasm. Progeny of a 5 × 5 diallel cross yielded estimates of narrow sense heritability (h2 = 0.28) and broad sense heritability (H2 = 0.28) for vase life based on a mean of 1.96 measurements per plant. Additive gene action is postulated to control this character since the difference between total genotypic variance and additive genetic variance components was small. Repeatability (r = 0.57) based on a single measurement per plant was moderately high. Heritability estimates were also determined based on 1, 2, 3, 5, and ∞ measurements per plant. Heritability ranged from 22% to 39%.
N.N. Wassimi, G.L. Hosfield, and M.A. Uebersax
Culinary quality in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) depends on attributes of seeds prevailing at harvest and is determined by the genetic architecture of cultivars and by unpredictable environmental factors. Variation among genotypes for culinary quality has been shown to be heritable; however, the efficacy of selection depends on a knowledge of the genetic control of the measured traits. A diallel mating design was used to estimate the combining ability of parents and determine the inheritance of nine culinary quality traits important to processors and consumers. Genetic variability among eight parents, 56 F2, and 56 F3 progenies was confirmed by significant mean squares from analyses of variance. Significant variability detected between F2 and F3 progenies for soaked bean weight (SBWT), soaked bean water content (SBWC), and clumps (CLMP) was due to inbreeding effects. General combining ability (GCA) components were highly significant and overshadowed specific combining ability (SCA) components in the F2 and F3 for SBWT, SBWC, split beans (SPLT), and the washed-drained weight coefficient (WDWTR), indicating that additive variance predominated. Ratios of GCA: SCA components were equal to or less than unity for CLMP, washed-drained weight (WDWT), and texture (TEXT), indicating that both additive and nonadditive effects contributed to trait expression. Significant SCA effect variances were noted for `Sanilac', `San Fernando', `Nep-2', and `A-30' for WDWT and TEXT, implying that progeny from crosses of these parents had higher or lower mean values for the traits titan the average expected on the basis of GCA. Graphs of the regression of Vr on Wr showed that genes controlling WDWT and TEXT were completely dominant in most cases. Recurrent selection, which seeks to concentrate favorable alleles with additive effects in populations, may he an effective breeding procedure to improve the culinary quality of dry beans. It is not feasible to breed for TEXT and WDWT simultaneously because of a negative correlation between the traits.
William M. Randle
Twenty bulbs from each of 10 onion (AIlium cepa L.) cultivars and one mass population were harvested from two locations and evaluated for three traits associated with flavor quality. Variance components for soluble solids content (SSC), pyruvic acid concentration (PAC), and percent S were calculated, and sampling schemes required to detect specific differences among treatment means were determined. In general, a five-bulb sample and four replications were sufficient to detect desired differences for SSC and PAC, whereas percent S required a larger sample size and more replications.
Bridget K. Behe, Timothy A. Prince, and Harry K. Tayama
Survey analysis of 510 floral product consumers in Ohio supermarkets identified 34 factors that affect floral purchasing. Responses to 106 survey questions were factor-analyzed using a principal component analysis with varimax rotate that yielded 34 independent factors, accounting for 64% of the total variance. Factors were grouped into five major categories: product, consumer, store, use (gift), and use (location) factors. The analysis condensed the domain of consumer floral purchasing issues into fewer factors that represent the most important influences on floral buying decisions. The factors are useful in market segmentation and were used to define five market segments of supermarket-floral customers.
Douglas V. Shaw, Frank G. Zalom, and Kirk D. Larson
Eighteen strawberry genotypes from the University of California's breeding population were evaluated over two years for yield and fruit size with complete, partial, and no control of natural infestation by Tetranychus urticae Koch. The numbers of mites per leaf accumulated for the entire season or counted at peak infestation, and the number of mite-days accumulated for the season for partial control treatments were 31.7% to 44.0% of corresponding values realized for uncontrolled infestation, and values differed significantly between treatments for all three variables. Yields for the no-control and partial-control treatments averaged 81.6% and 85.0% of the yields obtained with complete spidermite suppression for the 2 trial years; fruit sizes were 95.1% and 92.0% for corresponding comparisons. Yield and fruit size differed significantly between the complete-control treatment and any level of infestation, but statistically significant differences between partial and complete mite control treatments were detected only for fruit size in a single year. Analysis of variance demonstrated significant or highly significant variation due to control level, genotype, and their interactions for both yield and fruit size, but resolution of variance components demonstrated that genetic × treatment interactions explained just 0% to 8% of the phenotypic variance for yield and fruit size in a 2-year evaluation. Genotypic variances, those reflecting genetic effects that were stable across treatments, were at least 9.3 times as large as interaction variances for these traits. There appears to be no evidence for partial resistance that might be expressed at intermediate levels of spidermite infestation.
Jack E. Staub and Juan Zalapa
Plant improvement incorporating quantitatively inherited yield component traits is technically difficult, time consuming, and resource demanding. In melon (Cucumis melo L.), the inheritance of yield components is poorly understood. A unique highly branched fractal melon plant type has been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from exotic germplasm to improve yield of U.S. Western Shipping type melons (Group Cantalupensis). In order to more effectively develop useful germplasm for commercial use the genetic of components of yield must be clearly understood. Thus, the genetics of branching, an important yield component, was investigated. Melon progeny derived (F1, F2, F3, BC1P1, and BC1P2) derived from a cross between USDA line 846-1 (P1) and Top-Mark (P2) were used to evaluated in two locations (Wisconsin and California) to estimate of components of variance, and narrow-sense (h2N) and broad-sense (h2B) sense heritabilities. Lateral branch numbers among 71 to 119 F3 families were significantly different (P ¾ 0.01) regardless of test environment. Covariance analyses indicates that branching is moderately heritable (h2B = 0.62 to 0.76, h2N = 0.43 to 0.48), and conditioned by several additive factors (perhaps 2 to 4) that are highly additive. Although environment plays an important role in lateral branch development, family rankings over environments were relatively consistent, indicating that effective selection for this trait should be useful for incorporating the fractal plant habit into Western Shipping melon. The significant additive component underlying lateral branch number indicates that quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning this yield component might be identified for use in marker-assisted selection.
Yosuke Yoshioka, Ryo Ohsawa, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Seishi Ninomiya, and Naoko Fukuta
Petal shape and picotee colour pattern of lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] were qualitatively evaluated by means of personal computer-based methods. In lisianthus, many cultivars have been improved to obtain various floral characteristics. Picotee color patterns and flower shape are commercially important in this species and the availability of an objective and quantitative evaluation method is of vital importance for investigations related to the genetic and physiological aspects of these characteristics. Our objectives were to evaluate petal shape variation quantitatively and to establish a new quantitative evaluation method for picotee color patterns. We succeeded in quantitatively evaluating petal shape variation by means of elliptic Fourier descriptors and principal-components analysis, and in evaluating picotee color patterns by a newly developed procedure based on comparative marginal distribution. Petal shape variation was divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical elements of the entire shape variation. Both groups were additionally divided into several components. The variations in picotee color pattern were effectively described by the first through fourth principal components. Comparing the varietal effect of these components, nested analyses of variance showed that the differences between cultivars in picotee color pattern were smaller than those of the symmetrical shape elements. In addition, the environmental effects on picotee color formation were greater than those of symmetrical shape formation. The evaluation methods described in this study are effective for further investigations, and are applicable to other floricultural crops as well as lisianthus.
Douglas V. Shaw, John Hansen, and Greg T. Browne
One hundred-eighty six strawberry genotypes from the Univ. of California strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) breeding program were evaluated for resistance to Phytophthora cactorum Schroet. in trials conducted over 6 years; 60 of these genotypes were tested in 2 years or more. Mother plants of each genotype were grown in a propagation nursery beginning in June, and runner plants were set into soil infested with inoculum from a mix of four P. cactorum isolates in August or September of the same year. Runner plants of each genotype were harvested from the inoculated nursery, transferred to a fruiting field location, and evaluated for disease symptoms during the winter and spring following inoculation using a disease severity score. Significant variation for the disease severity score was detected due to years, genotypes, and their interaction. Differences among genotypes were responsible for 60.6% of the phenotypic variance, whereas years and year × genotype interactions contributed relatively little to this variance, 8.2% and 9.3%, respectively. A separate analysis conducted using a balanced subset of six cultivars that were present in all trial years detected variance components due to years and year × genotype interaction slightly smaller than those estimated for the complete trial, 5.0% and 3.9%, respectively. These results highlight the utility of the screening system and suggest that stable resistance to P. cactorum is obtainable in California strawberry breeding populations and production systems.