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Sohrab Davarpanah, Ali Tehranifar, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Mehdi Aran, Javier Abadía, and Reza Khorassani

et al., 2009 ). The fertilizer solution was prepared by diluting the nN commercial liquid product or commercial urea with underground water available in wells in the orchard. Trees were sprayed twice per season, the first at full bloom, on 12 May 2014

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Gaofeng Zhou, Bixian Li, Jianmei Chen, Fengxian Yao, Guan Guan, Guidong Liu, and Qingjiang Wei

caused by the increased photosynthetic efficiency, which corroborates similar research of other citrus fruits ( Han et al., 2008 , 2009 ; Long et al., 2017; Lu et al., 2014 ). The underground parts of the plant are also influenced by low pH and/or B

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Nathalie Nivot, Alain Olivier, and Line Lapointe

season, the terminal bud can be either girdled or removed and the rhizome replanted. The rhizome can also be cut transversally in two parts, leaving one section with the terminal bud and one without, both sections being replanted. In certain cases, buds

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I-Ling Lai, Chih-Wan Lin, Tsai-Yu Chen, and Wei-Hsin Hu

light microscope (AxioCam ERc 5s; Zeiss, Jena, Germany; Lee et al., 2006 ; Yeung, 1999 ). Other parts of the tissues were dehydrated in a critical point dryer. Subsequently, they were coated with gold using an ion sputter coater (E-1010; Hitachi Ltd

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Masoud Arghavani, Mohsen Kafi, Mesbah Babalar, Roohangiz Naderi, Md. Anamul Hoque, and Yoshiyoki Murata

Swartz), Sakr (2009) showed that TE application increased turf coverage percentage, lawn density, fresh and dry weight of underground parts, leaf Chl, carotenoides, carbohydrates, and K + content and decreased leaves’ proline, Na + , and Cl

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Ming Liu, Aijun Zhang, Xiaoguang Chen, Rong Jin, Hongmin Li, and Zhonghou Tang

activity was expressed as TTC reduction intensity. Root activity = amount of TTC reduction (μg)/time (h) × fresh root weight (g FW). At 31 DAT, three more plants were sampled and separated into shoot and root parts, which were oven-dried at 105 °C for 30

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S. Alan Walters and Elizabeth A. Wahle

production of horseradish in a perennial system is generally more laborious and requires greater field management compared with an annual production system. In the perennial system, upright, thickened, underground shoots arising from a deeply planted “mother

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Susan C. Miyasaka, Sharon Motomura-Wages, Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi, Michael J. Melzer, Christopher A. Clark, Don R. LaBonte, and Arthur Q. Villordon

weevils cannot mine through soil to reach storage roots deep underground, and they normally attack only the upper parts of storage roots exposed by soil cracking. Similarly, Stathers et al. (2003) found a negative correlation between resistance of

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Bo-Ling Liu, Zhi-Bin Fan, Ze-Qun Liu, Xun-Hong Qiu, and Yan-Hong Jiang

Aloe arborescens and Psoralea drupacea ( Amoo et al., 2012 ; Lystvan et al., 2010 ). The aboveground parts of plants are often adapted to a higher rate of synthesis of secondary metabolites than underground tissues ( Bourgaud et al., 2001 ). The

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Fengyun Zhao, Yu Jiang, Xiufeng He, Huaifeng Liu, and Kun Yu

soil (20–40 cm underground) was sampled at 9:00 to 10:00 on day 15 and day 75 after anthesis, and the grape plants and rhizosphere soil were separated for cleaning and drying. Soil organic matter, pH, EC, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, total