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Daniel Hargey, Benjamin Wherley, Casey Reynolds, Richard White, and Garrett Parker

Winter overseeding of dormant bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon sp.) athletic turf has been a common practice in the transition zone and southern United States. Winter overseeding provides an actively growing cool-season turfgrass stand that provides

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Kurt Steinke, David R. Chalmers, Richard H. White, Charles H. Fontanier, James C. Thomas, and Benjamin G. Wherley

despite the apparent ability of warm-season turfgrasses to withstand and recover from prolonged periods of drought. To enable regulators to make informed decisions, additional information is needed documenting both the maximum duration without added water

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Kaitlyn M. Orde and Rebecca Grube Sideman

-tunnel sides in the early spring, we may have promoted early-season growth and flowering. Together, these results show that the combination of DN cultivars and low tunnels are likely to extend the strawberry fruiting season 2 to 3 weeks earlier in the spring in

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Otho S. Wells

Rowcovers and high tunnels are two intensive production systems used by commercial growers to extend the season and to improve yields of vegetables and strawberries. There are many types of rowcovers. These materials are summarized with descriptive information, primary use, and cost. The basics of high tunnel construction are presented to facilitate setting up a high-tunnel system.

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Neil S. Mattson

by solar radiation, and is cooled through side or end walls that are manually opened and closed ( Lamont, 2009 ). They are primarily used in temperate northern latitudes to extend the production season and improve the quality of high

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David L. Coffey

Eight extended shelf-life hybrid tomato cultivars, along with six conventional entries including the commercial cultivars, `Sun Leaper' and `Plum Dandy', were evaluated at The Univ. of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station. Plants of extended shelf-life cultivars had an indeterminate growth habit and were 18 cm taller than plants of the determinate conventional cultivars. Subjective ratings for disease incidence were less for extended shelf-life cultivars early in the season but were no different late in the season. Fruits were harvested at the pink stage over a 4-week period and graded by size according to the Los Angeles lug arrangement. Yields from extended shelf-life cultivars ranged from 2000 to 2666 with an average of 2394 boxes of marketable fruit per hectare. Yields from conventional cultivars averaged 2323 boxes of marketable fruits per hectare. Yields of fruits occurring in the 5 × 5 and larger size ranges were greater for the extended shelf-life cultivars, while the reverse was true with yields of fruits in the 6 × 6 range. Extended shelf-life cultivars produced more cull fruits than conventional cultivars. For firmness comparisons, fruits were selected from the 4 × 5 grade and stored at a temperature of 22 to 24 °C. Starting 2 days after harvest, fruits were subjectively evaluated at 2-day intervals by hand-squeezing, using a rating scale of 1-5, 5 being equivalent to that of the firmness of a mature green fruit of the same size category. Fruits of extended shelf-life cultivars were firmer at harvest and remained firmer during 12 days of postharvest storage than those of conventional cultivars.

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Mike A. Nagao, Elodie B. Ho-a, and Judy M. Yoshimoto

Flowering of Macadamia integrifolia trees was monitored following application of 220 mg/liter gibberellic acid (GA3) at various times preceding the onset of the flowering season. In untreated trees, flowering extended over a 4-5 month period. When GA3 was applied at 2, 3 and 4 months before the onset of anthesis, raceme production during the entire flowering season was inhibited. A slight reduction in raceme production was observed when GA3 was applied at 1 month preceding anthesis. This application coincided with appearance of the earliest infloresceuces. GA3 application after the onset of anthesis did not alter the flowering pattern of trees during the remaining 4 months of the flowering season. Results suggest that GA3 inhibits flower initiation, but has no effect on raceme emergence after flower bud differentiation has occurred. The relationship between flower initiation and raceme emergence will be discussed.

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Mike A. Nagao, Elodie B. Ho-a, and Judy M. Yoshimoto

Flowering of Macadamia integrifolia trees was monitored following application of 220 mg/liter gibberellic acid (GA3) at various times preceding the onset of the flowering season. In untreated trees, flowering extended over a 4-5 month period. When GA3 was applied at 2, 3 and 4 months before the onset of anthesis, raceme production during the entire flowering season was inhibited. A slight reduction in raceme production was observed when GA3 was applied at 1 month preceding anthesis. This application coincided with appearance of the earliest infloresceuces. GA3 application after the onset of anthesis did not alter the flowering pattern of trees during the remaining 4 months of the flowering season. Results suggest that GA3 inhibits flower initiation, but has no effect on raceme emergence after flower bud differentiation has occurred. The relationship between flower initiation and raceme emergence will be discussed.

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S. Severmutlu, N. Mutlu, R.C. Shearman, E. Gurbuz, O. Gulsen, M. Hocagil, O. Karaguzel, T. Heng-Moss, T.P. Riordan, and R.E. Gaussoin

Traditionally cool-season turfgrasses such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ), tall fescue, and kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis ) are the dominant species used as turf in the Mediterranean region of Turkey and in similar regions of

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Timothy M. Spann*, Robert H. Beede, Steven A. Weinbaum, and Theodore M. DeJong

Rootstock significantly alters the pattern of shoot growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera) cv. Kerman. Trees on P. atlantica typically produce a single flush of spring growth whereas trees on P. integerrima selection PGI and P. atlantica × P. integerrima selection UCB-1 can produce multiple flushes during the season. Terminal buds of shoots on all three rootstocks were dissected during the dormant season to determine the number of preformed nodes. Data indicate that there are 8-9 nodes preformed in the dormant terminal bud of shoots from Kerman trees and that this number is independent of rootstock, canopy location, crop load, and shoot carbohydrate concentration, suggesting genetic control. This number corresponds with the number of nodes typically found on a shoot at the end of the spring growth flush. Unlike the spring flush which is preformed in the dormant bud, later flushes are neoformed, that is, nodes are initiated and extended during the same season. Neoformed growth depends on current season photosynthates and may compete with fruit growth for available resources. Neoformed growth is sensitive to water stress and trees on all three rootstocks grown under two levels of regulated deficit irrigation showed a reduction in both the number and length of neoformed shoots. Preformed shoot growth did not appear to be reduced under water stress conditions, supporting the hypothesis that preformed shoots are more dependent on environmental conditions during the season they are initiated than during the season they are extended. Additionally, preformed shoots on well irrigated trees were similar in length for all rootstocks, further supporting the idea that preformed shoots are under genetic control and are not easily manipulated.