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Qi Wang, Rui Zhao, Qihang Chen, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Liqi Chen, and Xiaonan Yu

stress. Plants have developed many adaptive strategies to enhance drought stress tolerance, including changes in phytohormones ( Davies, 2010 ). ABA regulates stomatal conductance by reducing transpiration water loss and eventually affects the regulation

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Jennifer Han, Jan E. Murray, Qingyi Yu, Paul H. Moore, and Ray Ming

spherical fruit produced by females ( Higgins and Holt, 1914 ). Plant hormones play diverse roles in growth and development with most having pleiotropic effects. Gibberellin is a major phytohormone that functions to not only promote normal growth and

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Bruce W. Wood

autonomous flowering pathway involving phytohormones ( Amasino, 2010 ; Rohla et al., 2007a , 2007b ; Smith et al., 2007 ; Wilkie et al., 2008 ; Wood, 2011 ) and carbohydrate reserves ( Wetzstein and Sparks, 1983 ). Three distinct sequential phases of

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Teresa Eileen Snyder-Leiby and Shixiong Wang

., 2004 ; Zeeman et al., 1998 ). Several factors are potentially involved in starch accumulation that leads to the ruptured chloroplasts and zonal chlorosis. Three of these potential factors are sucrose transporters, phytohormones, and enzymes. Normally

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Xiaoling He, Susan C. Miyasaka, Yi Zou, Maureen M.M. Fitch, and Yun J. Zhu

successful system of genetic transformation must include a method for production of totipotent cells such as those found in callus tissues and then a method of regeneration of whole plants. Various combinations and levels of phytohormones have been reported

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Shuguang Wang, Yongpeng Ma, Chengbin Wan, Chungyun Hse, Todd F. Shupe, Yujun Wang, and Changming Wang

Phytohormones are small molecules that are derived from secondary metabolism and play key roles in shaping the plant architecture ( Santner and Estelle, 2009 ). The presence and effect of some of these hormones have been recognized for more than a

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Yan Xu and Bingru Huang

both genetically and environmentally regulated senescence are associated with hormonal changes with either upregulating or downregulating effects ( Nooden and Leopoid, 1988 ). Ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinins are three major phytohormones

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Da Man, Yong-Xia Bao, Lie-Bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

biochemical responses to drought stress. Accumulation of osmotic compounds such as proline and changes in phytohormones are some of the most common responses of plants to drought stress ( Hare et al., 1997 ). Proline, an amino acid, is a compatible solute

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Marco Volterrani, Nicola Grossi, Monica Gaetani, Lisa Caturegli, Aimila-Eleni Nikolopoulou, Filippo Lulli, and Simone Magni

triazoles as plant growth regulators, such as PB and PPC, was first attributed to their interference with the GA synthesis pathway ( Fletcher et al., 2000 ). Brassinosteroids were then identified as phytohormones involved in several growth responses such as

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Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini, and Youssef Rouphael

commercial plant biostimulant produced through water extraction and fermentation of tropical plant biomass. It contains phytohormones (mostly auxins 1.81 mg·kg −1 , cytokinins 0.29 mg·kg −1 and auxin:cytokinin ratio 6:1), amino acids (51.9 g·kg −1