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Derek W. Barchenger, Danise L. Coon, and Paul W. Bosland

insects. However, before caging can be implemented, all open flowers and possibly cross-pollinated fruit on the chile pepper plants must be removed. This is currently accomplished through laborious and time-consuming hand removal, which is exacerbated in

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

most significant reduction in fertility was observed with H2008-091-004, which had a relative fertility of 0.7% when compared with the diploid control. Reproductive pathways. Genome sizes (2C) recorded from 568 progeny of open-pollinated diploid and

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Stephen M. Olson and Joshua H. Freeman

Agriculture, 2001 ). Collards are tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, but bolting may be initiated by prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, 40 °F or less, followed by a period of warmer weather ( Peirce, 1987 ). Multiple open-pollinated and hybrid

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Qin Yang, Er Liu, Yan Fu, Fuqiang Yuan, Tingting Zhang, and Shu Peng

. 2016, 360 flowers at the balloon stage from the greenhouse plants and 360 flowers at the balloon stage from the field-grown plants were emasculated and bagged to avoid selfing and open pollination, respectively. Before this, the early or late flowers

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Reut Niska, Martin Goldway, and Doron Schneider

-cultivar commercial orchard, S - RNase allele distribution was determined in their open-pollinated progeny. Fruits were collected from adjacent ‘Avri’, ‘Yehuda’, and ‘Akko 1’ trees and PCR analysis for S - RNase alleles was performed on leaves of seedlings raised

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Milad El Riachy, Luis Rallo, Raúl de la Rosa, and Lorenzo León

. Seedlings from open pollination of the cultivar Manzanilla de Sevilla and from crosses between the cultivars Arbequina × Arbosana and Picual × Koroneiki were tested. These seedlings were generated following the standard procedures used in the olive breeding

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Peter T. Hyde, Elizabeth D. Earle, and Martha A. Mutschler

be used for large-scale production of hybrid seed. Hybrids were rapidly adopted by growers as a result of their significant increase in marketable yield as well as greater uniformity for horticultural traits compared with standard open-pollinated

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Richard L. Bell

-73, and ‘Summercrisp’ and/or orchard observations and nymph counts (all other selections; unpublished data). The P. communis × P. pyrifolia selections (n = 6) were derived mostly from NJ1, an open-pollinated P. pyrifolia seedling, and the P

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Neil Anderson, Peter Ascher, Esther Gesick, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, Vincent Fritz, James Hebel, Stephen Poppe, Judith Reith-Rozelle, Roger Wagner, Susan Jacobson, David Wildung, and Patricia Johnson

habits, a natural pollination between hexaploid parents C. weyrichii (Maxim.) Tzvelv. ‘Pink Bomb’ (a groundcover species, nonpatented cultivar; White Flower Farms, Litchfield, CT; 2n = 6x = 54) × C . × grandiflora Tzvelv. ‘Crusador’ (PP No. 6

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Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie

( Bailey and French, 1942 ; Blake, 1931 ). As a reproductive organ, the peach flower serves to attract insects. Peach flowers generally open before leaf growth, so changes in floral characteristics are readily visible. Under natural open-pollination, the