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Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Rayen Millaleo, Edgardo Cruces, Cristián Wulff-Zottele, Miren Alberdi, and María de la Luz Mora

). Other long-term effects are frequently related to chloroplast malformations, although high amounts of Al may not have been detected in this organelle, indicating indirect effects on chloroplast functioning ( Moustakas et al., 1995 ). Decreased total

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Lingyan Chen, Jinli Lai, Tianyou He, Jundong Rong, Muhammad Waqqas Khan Tarin, and Yushan Zheng

bamboo, the concentration of carotenoid in phenotype D was higher than chlorophyll a + b , indicating a stronger photoprotective function. The malformation of the chloroplast structure as well as the block in chlorophyll biosynthesis together promoted

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Marjorie Reyes-Diaz, Miren Alberdi, and Maria de la Luz Mora

than on roots. In leaves, Al toxicity induces chloroplast malformations, even though high amounts of Al may not be detected in this organelle, indicating indirect effects on chloroplast functioning ( Moustakas et al., 1995 ). In effect, decreases in

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M.E. El-Mahrouk, A.R. El-Shereif, Y.H. Dewir, Y.M. Hafez, Kh. A. Abdelaal, S. El-Hendawy, H. Migdadi, and R.S. Al-Obeed

a close link between oxidation stress and hyperhydricity ( Chakrabarty et al., 2006 ; Dewir et al., 2006 , 2014 ; Tian et al., 2014 ), ultimately resulting in plant malformation and malfunctioning. Several approaches, including modifications to

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Martin Makgose Maboko, Isa Bertling, and Christian Phillipus Du Plooy

Rylski, I. 1979 Effect of temperatures and growth regulators on fruit malformation in tomato Sci. Hort. 10 27 35 Saeed, A. Hayat, K. Khan, A.L. Iqbal, S. 2007 Heat tolerance studies in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Intl. J. Agr. Biol. 9 4 649

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Dilip R. Panthee, Jonathan P. Kressin, and Ann Piotrowski

include fruit cracking, malformation of fruits (e.g., catfacing), and a malformed blossom-end scar. In sum, heat stress reduces the fruit number, quality, and marketable yield of tomato. Heat stress tolerance has been analyzed in different plant species

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Bo-Ling Liu, Zhi-Bin Fan, Ze-Qun Liu, Xun-Hong Qiu, and Yan-Hong Jiang

result could be due to BA metabolism and induction of other endogenous hormones in the plant tissues ( Sharma and Wakhlu, 2003 ). Most adventitious shoots on media with different concentrations of TDZ showed hyperhydricity, resulting in their malformation

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Brian Dintelmann, David Trinklein, and Kevin Bradley

consisted of herbicide treatments. All garden annuals were evaluated for overall injury on a scale from 0% to 100%, where 0% = no injury, 1% to 25% = slight leaf malformation, cupping, and epinasty, 26% to 50% = reduced growth, significant epinasty, and

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Li Liu, Lin Jin, and Qiaosheng Guo

in relation to mango malformation Scientia Hort. 254 148 154 van Aarle, I.M. Plassard, C. 2010 Spatial distribution of phosphatase activity associated with ectomycorrhizal plants is related to soil type Soil Biol. Biochem. 42 324 330 van Elsas, J

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Gyeong Ran Do, Ju Hee Rhee, Wan Soon Kim, Yun Im Kang, In Myung Choi, Jeom Hwa Han, Hyun Hee Han, Su Hyun Ryu, and Han Chan Lee

cytochemical investigation. These tentative conclusions await further refinement and correction in the light of further research. Therefore, we cautiously propose that sterile triploid pollen relate with the intine layers malformation and the endoplasmic