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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

Fisch.) germination at 6,000, 12,000 and 18,000 ppm NaCl and CaCl 2 . Harivandi et al. (1982) studied germination of several cool-season grasses on washed sand and germination pads (blotter paper). The sand substrata can be easily used; however, it has

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

consolidated into full trays at the rate of 60 trays per person per 8-h day. One person would move graded trays 40 at a time on a cart into a delivery truck every 10 min. Water would be used for evaporative cooling through fan and pad systems operating 9 months

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Joshua Knight, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Charles R. Hall

4 weeks, and grown for an additional 8 weeks before marketing ( Ingram et al., 2017b ). Both modeled facilities were closed systems, so the irrigation and misting caused no runoff from the greenhouses. Water would also be used for evaporative cooling

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Steven T. Koike, Frank G. Zalom, and Kirk D. Larson

water and subsequent reduction of solar injury (SI). Overhead irrigation systems are used in apple orchards to provide evaporative cooling while reducing plant stress and SI on apple fruit ( Parchomchuk and Meheriuk, 1996 ; Recasens et al., 1988

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Paul Randall, Peter Sholberg, Gary Judd, and Joan Cossentine

spaced to ensure an airtight seal. An evaporator was made from an aluminum rod (25 mm diameter × 75 mm length) that had a hole drilled in one end to allow fitting of a 9.5-mm-diameter 150-W cartridge heater (CIR No. 2012/120; Omega Engineering, Stamford

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Trygve S. Aamlid and Peter J. Landschoot

saturated past extract (ECe) values [i.e., the ECe value at which shoot growth starts to decline below that of a nonsaline condition ( Carrow and Duncan, 1998 )], the cool-season turfgrasses have been ranked for tolerance to salts in the order of tall fescue

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Michael R. Evans, Giampaolo Zanin, and Todd J. Cavins

irrigation. However, the terms large pores and small pores are relative. Evaporation has been shown to account for 60% of the applied water lost from the substrate in the first 3 weeks after planting ( Argo and Biernbaum, 2005 ). The rate at which water is

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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

; Marcum et al., 1998 ; Suplick-Ploense et al., 2002 ). This poses a problem for growing and maintaining turfgrasses, especially during the germination and establishment stages ( Qian and Suplick, 2001 ). Capillary rise and evaporation accumulate salts on

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Nisa Leksungnoen, Paul G. Johnson, and Roger K. Kjelgren

evaporative cooling, increasing leaf temperature, and decreasing photosynthesis and growth ( Fry and Huang, 2004 ). Stomatal closure with increased vapor pressure deficit of ambient air (VPD) is common in many plants to moderate transpiration under high

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James W. Cross, Stacy A. Bonos, Bingru Huang, and William A. Meyer

Cool-season turfgrasses exhibit a bimodal growth pattern with most of their growth and development in the spring and fall months and a drastic decline in growth and overall turf quality during the summer months ( Turgeon, 2005 ). The decline in