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F. Morin, J.A. Fortin, C. Hamel, R. L. Granger, and D. L. Smith

A 12-week greenhouse experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on four apple (Malus domestica Borkh) rootstock cultivars: M.26, Ottawa 3 (Ott.3), P.16, and P.22. The plants were grown in soil from an apple rootstock nursery, containing high levels of extractable P (644 kg Bray/1 ha-1). Inoculation treatments were Glomus aggregatum Shenck and Smith emend. Koske, G. intraradix Shenck and Smith, and two isolates of G. versiforme (Karsten) Berch, one originally from California (CAL) and the other one from Oregon (OR). Mycorrhizal plants were taller, produced more biomass, and had a higher leaf P concentration than the uninoculated control plants. Mycorrhizal inoculation also significantly increased the leaf surface area of `M.26' and `Ott.3' compared to the control. Glomus versiforme(CAL)-inoculated plants generally had the best nutrient balance, the greatest final height and shoot biomass, and produced an extensive hyphal network. All the mycorrhizal plants had similar percentages of root colonization, but the size of the external hyphal network varied with fungal species. Glomus versiforme(OR) had a larger extramatrical phase than G. aggregatum and G. intraradix. Mycorrhizal efficiency was associated with a larger external hyphal network, but showed no relation with internal colonization. Despite the high P fertility of the soil used, growth enhancement due to mycorrhizal inoculation was attributed to improved P nutrition.

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Maria Luiza De Oliveira, James G. Thomson, and Ed Stover

recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and transformation. Relevant existing literature reports an efficient transformation procedure using adventitious juvenile ‘Washington Navel’ orange tissue, but efficiency was reduced using older juvenile epicotyl sections

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Paolo Benincasa, Marcello Guiducci, and Francesco Tei

Meaning of nitrogen use efficiency. Several studies have addressed the optimization of fertilization and the improvement of NUE of crops to achieve high yields with reduced N fertilization rates and limited environmental side effects related to N

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Pascal Nzokou and Bert M. Cregg

known mechanism for perennial plants to conserve and reuse stored N that can substantially impact the N use efficiency ( Coleman et al., 2004 ; Hinesley et al., 1991 ). Nitrogen shortages lead to reduction of the RuBisCo (ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate

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Kwang Jin Kim, Hyun Hwan Jung, Hyo Won Seo, Jung A. Lee, and Stanley J. Kays

accurately reflects the rate; however, different media volumes may significantly impact the contribution by microbes. To test this assumption, we assessed the VOC removal efficiency of plants as rate/aboveground volume to media volume ratio and rate/LA to

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Ricardo Hernández and Chieri Kubota

is HPS. HPS are well accepted as a result of their relatively high fixture PPF efficiency. For example, single-ended and double-ended magnetic and electronic HPS PPF efficiencies range between 0.93 to 1.85 μmol·J −1 ( Nelson and Bugbee, 2013

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Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Giuseppe Colla, and Elvira Rea

efficiency under drought conditions in high-yielding genotypes would be to graft them onto rootstocks capable of reducing the effect of water stress on the shoot as observed in tree crops ( García-Sánchez et al., 2007 ; Satisha et al., 2007 ). In the past

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John E. Erickson and Kevin E. Kenworthy

). Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing turfgrass germplasm and management practices that contribute to reduced water use and increased efficiency of water use by turfgrass systems. However, in many cases, we still lack a basic understanding

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Sorkel Kadir, Michael Von Weihe, and Kassim Al-Khatib

value. In the process, the first electron acceptor of PSII (QA) is fully reduced. This allows the determination of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII primary photochemistry given by the ratio of Fv and Fm. Changes in the fluorescence yield reflect

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

, to improve the energy use efficiency in PFALs, it is necessary to find the optimal light environment for plant growth ( Kozai et al., 2016 ). Therefore, to investigate the optimal combination of light wavelengths for lettuce ( Lactuca sativa cv