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Haiyan Xu, Folian Li, Yuezhi Pan, and Xun Gong

interspecific hybridization processes between M. yunnanensis and M. crassipes and their heterozygote embryogenesis, and we hereby addressed three questions: 1) What are the hybridization processes of the direct cross and reciprocal cross between M

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Barbara M. Reed, Sara Schwanke, and Rebecca Shala

Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN) is relatively routine for many small, desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds. Seeds of Pyrus species are considered orthodox but have not been evaluated for LN storage. Seeds of freshly collected P. communis L. (`Bosc') were evaluated for germinability and by TZ staining after exposure to four LN treatments: 1) direct immersion and direct removal; 2) direct immersion and 1 minute in LN vapor phase before removal; 3) 2 minutes in vapor phase before immersion and direct removal; and 4) 2 minutes in vapor phase before immersion and 1 minute in vapor phase before removal. Fresh `Bosc' seed viability evaluated by TZ and greenhouse germination tests remained high (83% to 100%) following four types of LN treatments, compared to the controls (77% to 87%). Differences in `Bosc' seed viability were small and TZ results showed no significant differences among the LN treatments. Direct LN immersion and removal resulted in significantly more greenhouse-germinated `Bosc' seeds than the other treatments and fewer control seeds germinated than any LN treated seeds. Fresh `Bosc' seed cryopreserved at 7.9% moisture exhibited high germinability by both TZ and germination tests. LN exposure caused no physical damage to the seeds. Chemical name used: 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TZ).

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J.E. Brown, R.P Yates, C. Stevens, and V.A. Khan

Effects of planting methods and rowcover on the production of yellow crookneck squash, Cucurbita pepo L. var. melopepo Alef., were evaluated over 2 years at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, Ala. Summer squash was direct-seeded or transplanted in the field with or without black plastic mulch and grown with or without rowcover. Yield of transplanted squash was significantly increased over the same squash direct-seeded. Neither plastic mulch nor rowcover had an effect on summer squash production. Transplants matured 8 to 10 days earlier than the direct-seeded plants.

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Jane Kahia, Margaret Kirika, Hudson Lubabali, and Sinclair Mantell

importantly it offers potential environmentally friendly approach to the long-term control of coffee diseases and in production of organically grown coffee. The propagation of Ruiru 11 is by F 1 hybrid seed, production through hand artificial cross

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Griffin M. Bates, Sarah K. McNulty, Nikita D. Amstutz, Victor K. Pool, and Katrina Cornish

our study, is expensive, and commercially viable rubber dandelion will need to be direct-seeded. However, direct seeding would shorten the growing period by about 2 months (because the transplants are grown in greenhouses before the planting season

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Marianne Andresen and Nina Cedergreen

ability to combat pests or of a direct action on the physiology of the treated plant, or both, is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the growth-regulating potential of water extracts of TSP, one of the ingredients used in

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Natalie R. Bumgarner, Mark A. Bennett, Peter P. Ling, Robert W. Mullen, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

temperature differentials during some seasons ( Both et al., 2007 ; Knewtson et al., 2010 ). If true, stand establishment of direct-seeded lettuce could be promoted in high-tunnel systems during periods when low external temperatures would suppress it

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Wayne C. Porter and Richard L. Parish

criticism of similar ones not named. Hybrid `Headstart' seed for this study was provided by the Asgrow Seed Co. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be

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Garry G. Gordon, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Stewart T. Reed, James E. Brown, and Edgar L. Vinson III

represented a different block. Okra was direct-seeded into the field on 8 May 2003 and 28 Apr. 2004. A soil pH of 7.0 was recorded in Year 2003 and 6.2 in 2004. Treatments consisted of five mulch colors: black (BPM), white (WPM), red (RPM), silver (SPM) (all

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Joshua H. Freeman, Stephen M. Olson, and William M. Stall

( Cyperus esculentus ) with direct-seeded and transplanted watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Weed Tech. 17 751 754 Duthie, J.A. Roberts, B.W. Edelson, J.V. Shrefler, J.W. 1999a Plant density