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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

to a number of physiological disorders including bitter pit, soft scald, soggy breakdown, low temperature breakdown, and senescent breakdown ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ; DeLong et al., 2006 ; Moran et al., 2009 ; Rosenberger et al., 2004

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Molly Felts, Renee T. Threlfall, and Margaret L. Worthington

be defined by how the flesh is attached to the pit or endocarp; categorized as either freestone or clingstone. Cultivars also can be defined as semiclingstone or semifreestone, a trait particularly found in earlier-ripening cultivars; however, there

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Eric A. Curry, Carolina Torres, and Luis Neubauer

, flecking, bitter pit, blotch, lenticel marking, radiation injury, delayed sunscald, superficial scald, and soft scald ( Meheriuk et al., 1994 ; Pierson et al., 1971 ; Porritt et al., 1982 ). Together, these disorders may render unmarketable as much as 20

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Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry

bitter pit were evaluated visually and the incidence of the damage determined. CA-related injury to the cortex (brown lesions and lens-shaped cavities, the latter typically associated with smaller brown lesions) and senescence breakdown were evaluated by

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temperature disorders such as soft scald and soggy breakdown, and disorders such as bitter pit that are exacerbated by warmer storage temperatures. Al Shoffe and Watkins (p. 481) found that short-term storage (1 to 4 weeks) at 33 °F followed by storage at 38

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W. Robert Trentham, Carl E. Sams, and William S. Conway

harvest and in extended cold storage ( Recasens et al., 2004 ). Increasing the Ca content of apples maintains fruit firmness, decreases the incidence of disorders such as water core, bitter pit, and internal breakdown ( Bangerth et al., 1972 ; Dierend and

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Yan-xin Duan, Ying Xu, Ran Wang, and Chun-hui Ma

cultivation area increasing, a physiological disorder that appears to be cork spot in this cultivar has occurred in several pear orchards in Shandong province of China, and become a serious problem over the years. Cork spot, bitter pit, and corky core, the

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Sara Serra, Rachel Leisso, Luca Giordani, Lee Kalcsits, and Stefano Musacchi

leaves and, subsequently, affects postharvest fruit quality and postharvest susceptibility to storage disorders. Young ‘Honeycrisp’ orchards are susceptible to bitter pit and symptoms can appear before harvest or during storage ( Rosenberger et al., 2004

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Luiz C. Argenta, Sérgio T. de Freitas, James P. Mattheis, Marcelo J. Vieira, and Claudio Ogoshi

; Errampalli et al., 2012 ). Similarly, 1-MCP can inhibit physiological disorders such as superficial scald, senescent breakdown, and bitter pit while exacerbating others such as carbon dioxide injury, leather blotch, and diffuse skin browning ( DeEll et al

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C.B. Watkins and F.W. Liu

susceptibility to CI. Of these factors, most attention in the literature has been given to mineral concentrations, especially bitter pit and senescent breakdown ( Bramlage, 1993 ; Ferguson and Watkins, 1989 ; Ferguson et al., 1993 ). Correlation analyses