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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

spray drip into the pot), whereas root applications were applied four times per day through the irrigation system. Tomato plants did not experience water stress conditions for the time of the entire experiments. Fruit tissues were harvested 84 to 90 d

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Francisco Javier Núñez, Maria Victoria Huitrón, Manuel Díaz, Fernando Diánez, and Francisco Camacho-Ferre

plant density. Seed costs would rise but can be compensated by an increase in output and, depending on market conditions, by higher profits per hectare ( Ban et al., 2006 ). One way to increase yield is to establish the crop in an “entrained” system

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Nathan O. Nelson and Rhonda R. Janke

organic production systems rely on manures or composts as N sources. According to a poll conducted by the Organic Farming Research Foundation, compost and manure applications are regularly made by 57% and 22% of U.S. organic producers, respectively ( Walz

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Alexander R. Kowalewski, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, and Jeffrey C. Dunne

topdressing can be used to modify the soil texture, dilute soil organic matter, and smooth the surface of a turfgrass system. For instance, Miller (2008) determined that three sand topdressing applications applied over a 5-month period, totaling a 0.6-cm

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Arnold W. Schumann

that the precision system allowed spray application rates to be reduced by 66% to 80% and increased spray deposition efficiency on the target plants by 2.5 to 3.7 times greater than conventional broadcast spraying. Real-time sensors for VRF. Development

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Md. Jahedur Rahman, Haruhisa Inden, and Masaaki Kirimura

applied to the plants continuously by a drip irrigation system. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solutions were controlled during application. Nutrient compositions, EC, and pH for each treatment are shown in Table 1 . Average

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Shengrui Yao, Steve Guldan, Robert Flynn, and Carlos Ochoa

Service, 2014 ). In California and Florida, strawberry growers use the plastic-covered annual system with black plastic cover (plasticulture) with fall planting and spring harvest ( Gubler and Eastburn, 1988 ). In the mid-Atlantic, Northeast, and Midwest

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Ju Ding, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, and Jing-Quan Yu

field experiments ( Khripach et al., 2000 ). Plants have a natural array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves from pathogenic organisms. Recently, the generation and scavenging system of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has attracted increasing

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Xinhua Yin, Jinhe Bai, and Clark F. Seavert

applied on the soil surface, not incorporated into the active root zone. Second, the single application rate may be too high, resulting in low N use efficiency and high nitrate leaching. Root systems simply cannot absorb such high N rates in such a short

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W.P. Cowgill and R. VanVranken

105 WORKSHOP 13 Computer and Electronic Systems Applications in Horticulture