Experiments were conducted during summer seasons from 1991 to 1994 to find out the effect of winds on early growth of muskmelon. A randomized complete-block design with sheltered and exposed areas as treatments was used. Sensors for air temperature and relative humidity (model HMP35C or model XN217, Campbell Scientific) were placed at canopy height and 3-cup anemometers (model 12102, R.M. Young, Traverse City, Mich.) were 50 cm aboveground. All sensors were connected to CR10 automatic data loggers and recorded hourly average data. Using regression analysis, we found that the accumulative windspeed frequency below threshold (<4 m–s–1) can be used to predict both accumulative hourly heat units of air temperature (GDHT) with R2's more than 0.85 and total muskmelon fresh and dry weight and leaf area index at early growth. Predicted models using accumulative hourly windspeed frequency have R2's >0.80 in sheltered areas. Adding vapor pressure deficit to the model improves the prediction of muskmelon early growth, especially in exposed areas.
Entin Daningsih, Laurie Hodges, and James R. Brandle
S. Jenni and K.A. Stewart
As part of a program to develop a model for growth and development of muskmelon produced under various mulch and row cover combinations, all perfect flowers of five plants were tagged and measured on a daily basis. The polar and equatorial lengths of the inferior ovary were recorded from anthesis to fruit maturity. Mature fruits were harvested at full slip. The location of each flower on the plant was coded. Flowers and subsequent fruits were classified according to the following phenological stages: immature, close to mature, close to full bloom, full bloom, wilted, past full bloom, close to fruit, fruit. The netting was visually evaluated and rated on a scale of 0 to 5, the highest value representing maximum netting. At fruit maturity, the weight, polar and equatorial length of each fruit were measured and mature and immature seeds counted. The number of fruits that reached maturity was directly proportional to the total number of perfect flowers produced on a plant. Fruit weight during growth could be predicted from the polar and equatorial lengths.
Entin Daningsih, Laurie Hodges, and James R. Brandle
Field experiments were conducted in 1991, 1992, and 1993 to evaluate the effects of antitranspirant (Folicote, Aquatrol Inc.) and polyacrylamide gel (Supersorb, Aquatrol Inc.) on early growth of muskmelon. A RCBD with split plot arrangement was used with sheltered and exposed areas as the main treatments and seven combinations of antitranspirant spray and gel dip applications as subtreatments. Two greenhouse experiments were also conducted to simulate field research. A RCBD with seven treatments described as subtreatments in the field research was used in the greenhouse studies. Based on destructive harvests in the field, treatments and subtreatments did not affect dry weight or leaf area index. Specific contrasts, how ever, showed that gel application significantly increased dry weight and leaf area index whereas the spray application tended to reduce these factors during the first three weeks after transplanting. Significant differences between dip and spray subtreatments disappeared by five weeks after transplanting. In both greenhouse experiments, gel dip application increased dry weight and leaf area index of muskmelon at all observations from 2 weeks to five weeks after transplanting. We conclude that gel application generally will provide more benefit during early muskmelon growth compared to the use of antitranspirant spray.
The banning of ethylene dibromide put an end to the exportation of Venezuelan melon to the northamerican market and made it a need testing alternative treatments. Melons were purchased from a grower/exporter and alloted in groups of 24 to the following treatments: control, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 KGy, and dip in water at 53C for 1 min. alone and plus 0.5 KGy, then they were stored at about 23C and 70% RH during 2 to 3 weeks in two experiments in one season. All the treatments resulted in comparable ratings for sensory attributes and figures for soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic/dehydroascorbic acid; the melons dipped in hot water showed the lowest decay. With the possible exception of the 1 KGy melons, the treated melons had attributes and lasted as least like the control ones, which indicates that the Galia cv. of melon grown in Venezuela tolerates irradiation with doses useful in quarantine and technological terms.
Jack E. Staub, Gennaro Fazio, Thomas Horejsi, Yael Danin-Poleg, Noa Reis, and Nurit Katzir
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to characterize genetic relationships among 46 accessions in two C. melo L. subsp. melo (Cantalupensis, Inodorus) and subsp. agrestis (Conomon and Flexuosus) groups. Genetic distance (GD) estimates were made among and between accessions in four melon market classes [Galia, Ogen, Charentais, and Shipper (European and U.S. types)] of Cantalupensis, one market class of Inodorus (Cassaba and Honey Dew), one accession of Conomon, and one accession of Flexuosus by employing three GD estimators; simple matching coefficient, Jaccard's coefficient, and Nei's distance-D. Differences detected among 135 RAPD bands and 54 SSR bands (products of 17 SSR primers) were used to calculate GD. Band polymorphisms observed with 21 RAPD primers and 7 SSR primers was important in the detection of genetic differences. Estimators of GD were highly correlated (P > 0.0001; rs = 0.64 to 0.99) when comparisons were made between estimation methods within a particular marker system. Lower correlations (P > 0.001; rs = 0.17 to 0.40) were detected between marker systems using any one estimator. The GD of the Conomon and Flexuosus accessions was significantly different from the mean GD of all the market classes examined, and market classes were distinguishable from each other. Although lower coefficients of variation can be attained in the estimation of GD when using RAPDs compared to SSRs, the genetic relationships identified using these markers were generally similar. Results of RAPD marker analysis suggest that 80 marker bands were adequate for assessing the genetic variation present in the accessions examined.
César Guzmán-Loza, J. Farías-Larios, and J.G. López-Aguirre
Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (MA) on horticultural plant production has great potential as a biotechnological alternative; however, information on its effects on the early growth phase of honeydew melon is lacking. Nevertheless, it would seem that inoculation at the time of sowing would decrease the stress of transplant, improve root vigor, make plants grow faster, improve drought resistance, and lessen the effect of roots diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inoculating honeydew melon seedlings with two commercial formulations of MA fungi at different study times in an effort to select for higher resistance and infective capacity. `Moonshine' hybrid melon seeds were sown in trials with 200 cavities containing specific doses of inoculate: 0, 100, 200, 250, 500, and 1000 cc/trial of BuRIZE, Mycorrhiza NES. A factorial design was used (formulations and study times) with a randomized distribution and four replications. Four destructive samples were taken at 10, 15, 20, and 25 days after inoculations. Number of leaves, shoot fresh weight, dry weight, root fresh weight, foliar area, and mycorrhizal colonization were recorded. Results obtained showed a highly significant effect between commercial formulations and study times and an interaction of both factors to studied variables. Mycorrhizal colonization percentages were too low (0.3% to 1.7%). At 20 days after inoculations, it was possible to see all the components of functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on melon plants roots. Using commercial formulations of mycorrhizal fungi decreased applications of fertilizers in melon plants.
Hybrid, non-netted, green-fl esh, honeydew muskmelon fruit physiological maturity occurred by 40 days after anthesis (DAA). Fruit maturity was determined by major increases in quality attributes: moisture content, firmness, soluble solids concentration, weight, volume, and qualitative and quantitative changes in glucose, fructose, and sucrose content. Fruit ripening occurred between 40 and 50 DAA as determined by maximized changes in the aforementioned quality attributes, and by fruit abscission at 50 DAA. Fruit senescence begins with decreases in: quality attributes, hypodermal-mesocarp plasma membrane H+-ATPase (E.C. 184.108.40.206) activity, and protein content, and by increases in: the total free sterol: total phospholipid ratio, and hypodermal-mesocarp lipoxygenase (E.C. 220.127.116.11) activity. Delineated growth and maturation physicochemical data of hybrid honeydew muskmelon fruit should be beneficial to the commercial harvest of mature fruits, which is necessary for maximizing honeydew fruit quality, extending shelf-life, and enhancing consumer satisfaction.
David W. Wolff, Daniel I. Leskovar, Mark C. Black, and Marvin E. Miller
The effect of zero, one, and two fruits per vine on plant growth and reaction to Monosporascus root rot/vine decline were investigated. In the first study, four cultivars with differing levels of tolerance were evaluated (`Primo', `Deltex', `Caravelle', `Magnum 45'). Vine decline ratings were taken weekly during the harvest period for 4 weeks. Treatments with no fruit showed delayed and less-severe vine decline symptoms. Temperature also effected vine decline symptom expression. In a Fall test, with lower temperatures during fruit maturity, symptoms were delayed in all treatments and often absent in treatments with no fruit load. Vine decline symptom expression is greatly effected by physiological (fruit load) and temperature stress. A subsequent study was conducted to more precisely quantify the effect of various fruit loads on shoot/root partitioning and vine decline symptoms. In addition to growth parameters root disease ratings were taken. `Caravelle', the most-susceptible genotype, was grown under differing fruit loads as mentioned above in Weslaco and Uvalde, Texas. As fruit load increased, root size decreased. Increased vine decline symptoms were observed under higher fruit loads. The implications on germplasm screening and breeding for resistance will be discussed.
Takashi Nishizawa, Satoshi Taira, Masanori Nakanishi, Masanori Ito, Masahiro Togashi, and Yoshie Motomura
Acetaldehyde and ethanol production by muskmelon fruit were promoted by short-term shading of the plants for 5 days from 10 to 15 days prior to fruit maturation. Sucrose concentrations in the fruit flesh were reduced by shading, while fructose and glucose concentrations did not differ. Shading also accelerated the development of a “water-soaked” appearance in the flesh.
S. Jenni, D.C. Cloutier, G. Bourgeois, and K.A. Stewart
Plant dry weight of muskmelon transplants to anthesis could be predicted from a multiple linear regression based on air and soil temperatures prevailing under 11 mulch and rowcover combinations. The two dependent variables of the regression model consisted of a heat unit formula for air temperatures with a base temperature of 14C and a maximum-reduced threshold at 40C, and a standard growing-degree-day formula for soil temperatures with a base temperature of 12C. Based on 2 years of data, 86.5% of the variation in the dry weight (on a log scale) could be predicted with this model. The base temperature for predicting time to anthesis of muskmelon transplants was established at 6.8C and the thermal time ranged between 335 and 391 degree-days during the 2 years of the experiment.