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Dongyan Hu and Ralph Scorza

. Barthelemy, D. Dauzat, J. Auclair, D. 1995 A model simulating above and below-ground tree architecture with agroforestry applications Agrofor. Syst. 30 175 197 Drenou, C. 2000 Pruning trees: The

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James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, Thomas M. Kon, Richard P. Marini, Tara A. Baugher, Lynn F. Kime, and Melanie A. Schupp

-old ‘Delicious’/ ‘M.7’ apple trees increased shoot growth and decreased subsequent fruiting because of reduced bearing surface. Although the benefits of pruning on growth, yield, fruit size, and fruit quality have long been known, the large, complex tree

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Sibylle Stoeckli, Karsten Mody, Silvia Dorn, and Markus Kellerhals

Host-plant resistance is a principal component of the management of pests and diseases in an integrated cropping system ( Kellerhals, 2009 ). In addition to enhanced plant health, crop yield, tree architecture, storability, and consumer preference

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Gayle M. Volk, Adam D. Henk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, and C. Thomas Chao

composition, tree architecture, winter and drought tolerance, and disease resistance ( Dzhangaliev, 2003 ; Yan et al., 2008 ; Zhou, 1999 ). The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) sponsored four plant exploration trips in Central Asia to collect wild

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Brian Makeredza, Helen Marais, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze, and Willem J. Steyn

during the season the fruit ripens, the tree architecture and bearing habit, and the accumulation of anthocyanin in the peel toward harvest that may mask the visible symptoms of sunburn ( Evans, 2004 ; Racsko and Schrader, 2012 ; Schrader et al., 2001

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Sogo Nishio, Masahiko Yamada, Yutaka Sawamura, Norio Takada, and Toshihiro Saito

.-E. Costes, E. 2009 Dissecting apple tree architecture into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects: QTL mapping Tree Genet. Genomes 5 165 179 Tamura, F. 2006 Japanese pear 50 58 In: Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. (ed.). Horticulture in Japan 2006 Shoukadoh

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Bouchaib Khadari, Amal Zine El Aabidine, Cinderella Grout, Inès Ben Sadok, Agnès Doligez, Nathalie Moutier, Sylvain Santoni, and Evelyne Costes

quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping in olive. The mapped segregating population OLV × ARB is currently phenotyped for growth and tree architecture to detect QTLs related to these traits. Literature Cited Aburjai, T. Natsheh, F.M. 2003 Review article: Plants

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Ana Morales-Sillero, Pilar Rallo, María Rocío Jiménez, Laura Casanova, and María Paz Suárez

in height and 1.5 to 2 m in width. In fact, excessive vigor and unsuitable tree architecture limit the use of many traditional cultivars in SHD olive groves ( Rallo et al., 2013a ). ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ and, in particular, ‘Manzanilla Cacereña

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Max G. Villalobos-Acuña, William V. Biasi, Sylvia Flores, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Rachel B. Elkins, and Neil H. Willits

application system could be further improved. Field applications must account for complex pear tree architecture with trees in many orchards having 150 or more fruits and canopies ranging from 4 to 6 m in height and 2 to 2.5 m width. In general, no

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D. Michael Glenn

LAI of 4 to 6 would have more internal shading and would benefit more from PAR diffusion by the reflective PF than more open tree architectures with an LAI of 2 to 4. The low correlation between Δ 13 C and δ 18 O and the shallow slope (δ 18 O = 0