Four-year-old `Gala'/M.26 trees were grown under low (2.5 mm), medium (12.5 mm), or high (25 mm) N supply with balanced nutrients in sand culture and the cropload was adjusted to 5 fruit/cm2 trunk cross-sectional area at 10 mm king fruit. After harvesting, half of the trees in each N treatment were sprayed twice with 3% urea a week apart in late September. Before budbreak the following spring, four trees from each treatment combination were destructively sampled for reserve nitrogen and carbohydrate analysis. Foliar urea application significantly increased tree N concentration and concentrations of both free amino acids and proteins, but decreased the concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) at each soil N supply level. When the carbon in free amino acids and proteins are taken into account, trees sprayed with foliar urea had similar levels of total sum of carbon in TNC, free amino acids and proteins. On a whole tree basis, trees sprayed with foliar urea had more N and less TNC. During the second year of the experiment, all the trees received normal N supply. Trees sprayed with foliar urea the previous fall had a significantly larger total leaf area and higher fruit set, fruit number, and total yield than those unsprayed. We conclude that fruit set and early fruit development as well as vegetative growth in spring is mainly determined by reserve nitrogen, not by reserve carbohydrates. Conversion of a portion of TNC to amino acids and proteins leads to better growth and fruiting of apple trees.
Guohai Xia and Lailiang Cheng
Ian R. Rodriguez, Lambert B. McCarty, Joe E. Toler, and Roy B. Dodd
Use of creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stoloniferous L. var. palustris (Huds.)] on golf greens has expanded into the hotter, more humid regions of the United States where its quality is often low during summer months. The summer decline in bentgrass quality may be partially attributed to respiration rates exceeding photosynthesis during periods of supraoptimal temperatures and adverse soil conditions, such as excessive CO2 and inadequate O2 levels. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of high temperature, high soil CO2, and irrigation scheduling on creeping bentgrass growth. A growth chamber study was conducted using `A-1' creeping bentgrass. Treatments included all combinations of three day/night temperature regimes (26.5/21 °C, 29.5/24 °C, and 32/26.5 °C), three irrigation schedules (field capacity daily, field capacity every two d, and half field capacity daily), and four soil CO2 injection levels (10%, 5%, 0.03%, and a noinjection control). Creeping bentgrass shoot and root dry weights and net photosynthetic rates were greater for day/night temperatures <32/26.5 °C. High temperatures (32/26.5 °C) and 10% CO2 reduced bentgrass net photosynthesis by 37.5 μmol CO2/m2/s. Shoot and root total nonstructural carbohydrates also were lowest for highest temperature regime. Respiration exceeded gross photosynthesis at 32/26.5 °C when 5% and 10% CO2 injection levels were used, indicating a carbon deficit occurred for these conditions. Irrigation volume and frequency did not affect bentgrass growth. High temperatures combined with high soil CO2 levels produced poorest turf quality.
Li-Song Chen, Brandon R. Smith, and Lailiang Cheng
Own-rooted 1-year-old `Concord' grapevines (Vitis labruscana Bailey) were fertigated twice weekly for 11 weeks with 1, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μm iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. As Fe supply increased, leaf total Fe content did not show a significant change, whereas active Fe (extracted by 2,2′-dipyridyl) content increased curvilinearly. Chlorophyll (Chl) content increased as Fe supply increased, with a greater response at the lower Fe rates. Chl a: b ratio remained relatively constant over the range of Fe supply, except for a slight increase at the lowest Fe treatment. Both CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance increased curvilinearly with increasing leaf active Fe, whereas intercellular CO2 concentrations decreased linearly. Activities of key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), stromal fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and a key enzyme in sucrose synthesis, cytosolic FBPase, all increased linearly with increasing leaf active Fe. No significant difference was found in the activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) of leaves between the lowest and the highest Fe treatments, whereas slightly lower activities of AGPase and SPS were observed in the other three Fe treatments. Content of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) increased curvilinearly with increasing leaf active Fe, whereas glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), and the ratio of G6P: F6P remained unchanged over the range of Fe supply. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) at both dusk and predawn increased with increasing leaf active Fe. Concentrations of starch and TNC at any given leaf active Fe content were higher at dusk than at predawn, but both glucose and fructose showed the opposite trend. No difference in sucrose concentration was found at dusk or predawn. The export of carbon from starch breakdown during the night, calculated as the difference between dusk and predawn measurements, increased as leaf active Fe content increased. The ratio of starch to sucrose at both dusk and predawn also increased with increasing leaf active Fe. In conclusion, Fe limitation reduces the activities of Rubisco and other photosynthetic enzymes, and hence CO2 assimilation capacity. Fe-deficient grapevines have lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in source leaves and, therefore, are source limited.
D. Bradley Rowe, Frank A. Blazich, and Robert J. Weir
Hedged stock plants of four full-sib families [27-2 × 27-5, 27-3 × 27-1, 27-2 × 27-1, and 27-6 × 27-1 (designated B, G, R, and W)] of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solution containing N at 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 mg·L–1. In May, terminal softwood stem cuttings were taken and placed under intermittent mist. Families were combined to form composite poor-rooting (BR) and good-rooting (GW) families. At 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sticking, cuttings were evaluated for rooting and analyzed for mineral nutrient and carbohydrate content. Percent rooting by week 12 for cuttings from stock plants receiving N between 25 to 70 mg·L–1 was 28% to 33%, whereas significantly fewer (17%) cuttings from plants receiving 10 mg·L–1 had rooted. By week 12, 98% of cuttings taken from stock plants receiving N at 10 mg·L–1 were alive, while significantly fewer (81% and 82%) of the more succulent cuttings receiving 55 and 70 mg·L–1, respectively, had survived. Nearly all increases in cutting height occurred within the first 3 weeks. In contrast, top dry weight increased steadily throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in rooting between the two composite families until week 12, when 32% of cuttings from family GW had rooted compared with 24% for family BR. Survival of cuttings was greater for the poor-rooting family (BR) (94%) than for the good-rooting family (GW) (82%) after 12 weeks. Levels of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) and individual soluble sugars were initially higher in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N, whereas the reverse was true for starch content. With the exception of sucrose, content of TNC and soluble carbohydrates generally increased over time. Starch was nearly depleted by week 3, but had increased by weeks 6 and 9. No correlation was found between TNC: N ratios and rooting percentage. Family GW contained greater quantities of myo-inositol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), and TNC than did family BR. Mineral nutrient content was generally greater in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N; these cuttings also maintained higher levels throughout the 12-week rooting period. As with the soluble carbohydrates, the good-rooting composite family (GW) contained greater amounts of all mineral nutrients than did the poor-rooting family BR.
Michael W. Smith, Charles T. Rohla, and Niels O. Maness
% total nonstructural carbohydrates and 13% starch in roots less than 1.3 cm in diameter during January. Total nonstructural carbohydrates during January in Smith and Waugh's (1938) seedling trees averaged ≈11.5% and 7% starch (converted to a dry weight
Charles T. Rohla, Michael W. Smith, Niels O. Maness, and William Reid
was detected for nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in shoots during January. Vegetative shoots had the highest total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration during 1 year, the lowest another year, and the other year the concentration was the
Charles T. Rohla, Michael W. Smith, and Niels O. Maness
January ( Table 6 ). Total nonstructural carbohydrate and nonreducing sugar concentrations in the roots during January were unaffected by thinning treatment throughout the study. Reducing sugar was lower in roots <1 cm diameter when clusters were thinned
Stefano Macolino, Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, and Umberto Ziliotto
, 1973 ). Most of the nonstructural carbohydrates [also referred to as total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC)] are water-soluble saccharides, but also include larger polysaccharides (starches) that are insoluble in water. Therefore, water
Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter, and Richard L. Hassell
Blake (1994) attribute the loss of total nonstructural carbohydrates to the loss of leaves, the source of carbon and growth hormones in the plants’ source–sink relationship. In a similar way, watermelon rootstock seedlings may be dependent on the
David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke
photomorphogenesis ( Bell and Danneberger, 1999 ; Bell et al., 2000 ). Furthermore, shade induces leaf elongation and results in a substantial decrease in turf density and rooting ( Fry and Huang, 2004 ). Total nonstructural carbohydrates also decline over time in